1.1 ELECTRICAL POWER DISTRIBUTION
Electric power distribution is an important part of electrical power systems in delivery of electricity to consumers. Electric power utilities worldwide are increasingly adopting the consumer aided monitoring, control and management of electric power distribution system to provide better service to electric consumers. Therefore, research and development activities worldwide are being carried out to automate the electric power distribution system utilizing recent development in the area of information technology (IT) and data communication system.
FIG 1.1 DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION
Electricity distribution is the final stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. A distribution system's network carries electricity from the transmission system and delivers it to consumers. Typically, the network would include medium-voltage (less than 50 kV) power lines, electrical substations and pole-mounted transformers, low-voltage (less than 1 kV) distribution wiring and sometimes electricity meters.
1.1.1 MODERN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
The modern distribution system begins as the primary circuit leaves the sub-station and ends as the secondary service enters the customer's meter socket. A variety of methods, materials, and equipment are used among the various utility companies, but the end result is similar. First, the energy leaves the sub-station in a primary circuit, usually with all three phases. The actual attachment ( electrical service or service drop ) to a building varies in different parts of the world. Electrical service can be provided directly from the utility company's transformer or though service laterals. Most areas provide three phase industrial service. There is no substitute for three-phase service to run heavy industrial equipment. A ground is normally provided, connected to conductive cases and other safety equipment, to keep current away... [continues]
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