Safe, secure and efficient shipping on clean oceans
Second IMO GHG Study 2009
The views and conclusions drawn in this report are those of the scientists writing the report.
Published in 2009 by the International Maritime Organization 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR Typeset by ReﬁneCatch Limited, Bungay, Suﬀolk Printed in the United Kingdom by CPI Books Limited, Reading RG1 8EX Copyright © International Maritime Organization 2009
Copyright notice: All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. For bibliographic purposes this document may be cited as: Second IMO GHG Study 2009, International Maritime Organization (IMO) London, UK, April 2009; Buhaug, Ø., Corbett, J.J., Endresen, Ø., Eyring, V., Faber, J., Hanayama, S., Lee, D.S., Lee, D., Lindstad, H., Markowska, A.Z., Mjelde, A., Nelissen, D., Nilsen, J., Pålsson, C., Winebrake, J.J., Wu, W., Yoshida, K. Approval of the Second IMO GHG Study The Marine Environment Protection Committee, at its ﬁfty-ninth session (July 2009), unanimously approved the Second IMO GHG Study as meeting its Terms of Reference, recognizing that the responsibility for the scientiﬁc content of the Study rested with the Consortium that developed it, and agreed that the Study would constitute a signiﬁcant document and become the paramount reference to the Committee for information in developing and pursuing IMO’s strategy to limit and reduce GHG emissions from international shipping. The Marine Environment Protection Committee consists of all IMO Members and is mandated to consider any matter within the scope of the Organization concerned with the prevention and control of pollution from ships, in particular with respect to the adoption of, and amendment to, the comprehensive regulatory framework developed and enacted by IMO. The Committee also considers appropriate measures to facilitate the full and eﬃcient implementation and enforcement of such a framework at the global level.
A message from IMO Secretary-General Efthimios E. Mitropoulos
It is widely acknowledged that an increase in global temperature is altering the complex web of systems that allow life to thrive on earth. From the human perspective, issues such as poverty, socio-economic development, population growth and sustainability are additional factors that serve to complicate ﬁnding a viable solution to the problem of human-induced changes in our climate. We stand at a juncture where our words need to be matched by actions, so that climate change will not accelerate its adverse eﬀect on everybody. And the decisions and actions we must take without further delay, will be of paramount importance for generations to come. International shipping is currently estimated to have emitted 870 million tonnes of CO2 in 2007, no more than about 2.7% of the global total of that year. That said, mid-range scenarios show that, by 2050, those emissions could grow by a factor of 2 to 3 if no regulations to stem them are enacted. Successfully addressing climate change will be far from easy; but the consequences of failing to do so are too dire to contemplate. At IMO, we have been, for some time now, energetically pursuing the limitation and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping, in recognition of the magnitude of the climate change challenge and the intense focus on this topic, both globally and within the Organization. The Second IMO GHG Study 2009 constitutes a signiﬁcant scientiﬁc
work undertaken at the global scale under the auspices of IMO. I would like to congratulate the...