Table of Contents
Ethnicity and Sport Participation
Socio- Economic level
Racism and Xenophobia
In Recent times sport has been exploited as a tool for engendering peace in communities, cities and between nations of the world. At the same time, questions and doubts have been raised as the weather sport has the capacity to transform individuals, and conflict and behaviours. This study is aims to investigate the barriers for participation to sport in ethnic minority groups, race and cultural barriers. Before taking place the pattern of ethnicity, race .and culture, it is very important to make clear and easy to understand. The meaning of race, ethnicity and culture, these three terms are often unclear for reader, .However the meaning is different. Culture refers a full range of learned human behaviour patterns. The term was first used in this way by the pioneer English Anthropologist. As Taylor (1871) said that culture is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." and as Harris (1983 cited, Thomas, 2011) defines that ‘culture as the learned, socially acquired traditions and life styles of the member of the society, including their patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, felling and acting. The term “Race” has generally been used as way of categorising people based on their physical appearance. In recent years most physical anthropologist have ceased using the term “race” as way of categorising human groups, because it has been shown to have no scientific validity (Lieberman & Reynolds, 1982 ) in spite of that, Racial classification is still used by many people. And lastly the term “ethnicity is widely used to refer to the categories by which by which people often label themselves and others. Defining ethnicity is not easy. Controversy exists over ethnic group and ethnicity should have different meaning. (Olusegum, 2011). Burgess (Cited, Olusegum, 2011) was convinced that ethnicity is a synthesis of ethnic group, meaning that either an only be understood through the others. Two debates provide insight into the term ethnicity, via Rational and non-rational, objective and subjective schools of thoughts. The rationalists believes nature of ethnicity, Unlike the non-rationalist who sees ethnicity is as not just a group of people believing in primordial evidence of common decent, but changing need for people to group together in response to social pressure and a basis of group action. It has also been observed that ethnic identification should be seen as the result of effort by underprivileged groups to improve their lot through collective mobilization, or conversely. The aim of the study is to investigate the barriers that affect to their participation in sport. The study is focusing barriers to ethnicity and race, based on the contemporary issue of racism. Focusing that does immigration and racism affects sport participation. The proposed research will take into consideration reasons that could be barriers for participation, racism xenophobia, family problem, integration, socioeconomic level. The research focused, how and why immigration could be a barrier for particular group. As Stdolska & Alaxanderies (2004) claims that the immigrant fills into one of three categories those categories are, Firstly Groups that embraced and assimilated to white culture. Secondly, groups that assimilated to a subculture of their own ethnic community. And finally groups that preserved into their own ethnic values and promoted their ethnic group solidarity. Additionally the research will also consider the awareness in sport regardless, there are many variable must take into consideration. Before determining whether the ethnic minority group deserves to be treated differently,...
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