“Game developers must balance an implicit notion of fun with the educational merit of a video game. In most commercial examples, disciplinary content is secondary to enjoyment and pleasure. In most educational examples, fun and engagement is a byproduct of the context. Developers face the daunting task of maximizing the technological elements of video games alongside the educational affordances. Further, they must accomplish this without losing the intangible element of fun…educators and developers must work together to produce immersive video game contexts that provide affordances that maximize learning and fun” (Schrader, Lawless, & Deniz, 2010, p. 309). In reference to the collaboration between educators and developers “Both sides must create common cause, and form an in-depth understanding of the processes they each go through to accomplish their goals. Educators need to know the strengths and limitations of the game development process, just as game designers need to appreciate the challenges and techniques behind implementing and reinforcing pedagogical practices and coursework” (Lawrence, 2010, p. 418).
“For gaming and the study of gaming to reach their full potential, industry and academia must cultivate a deeper understanding of the ideas that drive games, the experiences games can offer, and the implications of those ideas and experiences on the social and cultural significance of this young medium. This kind of progress will only come about when academia and industry work together” (Gold, 2008, p. 1). “Programmers, artists, and designers speak very different languages and use very different tools to create a single game, which ideally has a consistent and unified vision” (Spaulding, 2009, p. 36).
“‘Finding the fun in...learning’ and devising ways to focus on and enhance that fun as a core game dynamic is a good strategy” to approaching educational game development” (Klopfer, Osterweil, Salen, Haas, & Roy, 2009, pp. 29-30).
The authors suggest learning games design principles:
1. “Put learning and game play first
a. Good educational games will consider both the learning goals/content and the game play at the same time, with enough flexibility to iterate between the two to change one or both simultaneously” (Klopfer, Osterweil, Salen, Haas, & Roy, 2009, p. 34).
“A very important part of any learning process is the assessment of the progress of the learning experience. Games are a very rich interactive medium, and this interactive behaviour can be exploited for assessment purposes” (Moreno, Burgos, Martinez-Ortiz, Sierra, & Fernandez-Manjon, 2008, p. 2534).
“The presence of elements such as a slow pace, reﬂection, study of the environment, and problem-solving make point and click adventure games relevant from a pedagogical
perspective” (Moreno, Burgos, Martinez-Ortiz, Sierra, & Fernandez-Manjon, 2008, p. 2535).
“Modern video games immerse minds in virtual worlds in which the players must explore and discover the attributes of complex relationships and develop sophisticated skills and strategies in order to advance within the game. The virtual environments of video games appeal to student’s innate desire to learn and self-educate by sparking their natural curiosity while they are engaged in something they already enjoy. In other words, video games create a unique opportunity for tangential learning. Tangential learning is about being exposed to things within a context in which you’re already engaged” (Niles, 2010). The following are results from a case study: “The teachers suggested that the combination of learning with fun and the alignment with learners’ learning preferences were two main reasons of using the mathematics game” (Kebritchi, 2010, p. 260). “So the real issue is that the same simple word ‘fun’ can connote both enjoyment and pleasure (good), and amusement and/or ridicule (bad). This dichotomy, which we will see over and over again, lies at the root of resistance by business...