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Guatemala
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the country in Central America. For other uses, see Guatemala (disambiguation). Republic of Guatemala
República de Guatemala

FlagCoat of arms
Motto:
"Libre Crezca Fecundo"[1]
"El País de la Eterna Primavera"
"The Land of the Eternal Spring"[2]
Anthem: Himno Nacional de Guatemala
National anthem of Guatemala

Capital
and largest cityGuatemala City
14°38′N 90°30′W
Official languagesSpanish
Ethnic groups (2001)
59.4% Mestizo
9.1% K'iche'
8.4% Kaqchikel
7.9% Mam
6.3% Q'eqchi'
8.6% other Mayan
0.2% indigenous non-Mayan
0.1% others
DemonymGuatemalan
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
- PresidentOtto Pérez Molina
- Vice PresidentRoxana Baldetti
LegislatureCongress of the Republic
Independence from Spain
- Declared15 September 1821
- Declared from the
First Mexican Empire1 July 1823
- Current constitution31 May 1985
Area
- Total108,889 km2 (107th)
42,042 sq mi
- Water (%)0.4
Population
- July 2011 estimate13,824,463 (69th)
- July 2007 census12,728,111
- Density129/km2 (85th)
348.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2012 estimate
- Total$78.681 billion[3]
- Per capita$5,208[3]
GDP (nominal)2012 estimate
- Total$49.880 billion[3]
- Per capita$3,302[3]
Gini (2007)55.1
high
HDI (2011) 0.574[4]
medium · 131st
CurrencyQuetzal (GTQ)
Time zoneCST (UTC−6)
Drives on theright
Calling code+502
ISO 3166 codeGT
Internet TLD.gt
Guatemala (US i/ˌɡwɑːtəˈmɑːlə/ gwah-tə-mah-lə, UK /ˌɡwætɪˈmɑːlə/ gwa-ti-mah-lə), officially the Republic of Guatemala (Spanish: República de Guatemala [reˈpuβlika ðe ɣwateˈmala]), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, and Honduras and El Salvador to the southeast. Its area is 108,890 km2 (42,043 mi2) with an estimated population of 13,276,517. A representative democracy, its capital is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City. The former Mayan civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization, which continued throughout the Post-Classic period until the arrival of the Spanish. They had lived in Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, the southern part of Mexico and eastern parts of El Salvador. Guatemala's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot.[5] After independence it was ruled by a series of dictators, assisted by the United Fruit Company and the United States government. From 1960 to 1996, Guatemala underwent a civil war fought between the government and leftist rebels. Following the war, Guatemala has witnessed both economic growth and successful democratic elections. In the most recent election, held in 2011, Otto Pérez Molina of the Patriotic Party won the presidency. Contents [hide]

1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Pre-Columbian
2.2 Colonial (1519-1821)
2.3 Independence and the 19th century
2.4 1944 to the end of the civil war
2.5 Since 1996
3 Governance
3.1 Political system
3.2 Departments and municipalities
4 Geography
4.1 Natural disasters
4.2 Pacaya
4.3 Biodiversity
5 Demographics
5.1 Largest cities
5.2 Diaspora
6 Economy
7 Culture
7.1 Art
7.2 Literature
7.3 Music
7.4 Cuisine
7.5 Language
7.6 Religion
7.7 Funeral traditions
7.8 Education
7.9 Health
7.9.1 Medical anthropology and pluralism
7.10 Laureates
7.11 Journalism
8 See also
9 References
10 Further reading
11 External links
Etymology [edit]

The name "Guatemala" comes from Nahuatl Cuauhtēmallān, "place of many trees", a translation of K'iche' Mayan K'iche' , "many trees".[6][7] This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory. History [edit]

Main article: History of Guatemala
Pre-Columbian [edit]
The first evidence of human settlers in...
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