Effects of Smoking in Weight Changes

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The Problem and Its Setting
As of today, smoking is one of the vices that are very common among the youth especially for the males. How the researchers came up with a statement as such can be proven just by observing what is happening around oneself. Before moving on, definition of smoking should first be determined.

Smoking is the inhalation of the smoke of burning tobacco encased in cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. Casual smoking is the act of smoking only occasionally, usually in a social situation or to relieve stress. A smoking habit is a physical addiction to tobacco products. Many health experts now regard habitual smoking as a psychological addiction, too, and one with serious health consequences.

Based on the description above, it depends on how the person utilizes the said activity. It can be casually which is seldom and may also be used as a relaxation technique. Though it is not as often as habitual smoking, it is not free from the dangers that this activity entails. Habitual smoking, on the other hand, is described as an addiction as said above. When saying addiction, there is an over inclination over something that is, in the case of smoking, dangerous to one’s health.

In relation to the research, the researchers are to prove if there is any relation between smoking and weight changes among individuals. Considering the fact that the researchers are among the youth is a significant subject. Through the research, this study may explain what causes the changes and what changes it may be. But first, changes must be present to prove the feasibility of the topic. Theoretical Framework

Florence Nightingale’s Theory focused on the Environment
Related to the study, the researchers rely on the environment as a factor of the study’s efficacy. If one of the factors is changed, the positive results may also vary. As for the study, the factor emphasized is fresh air. The researchers will be changing it to polluted air, specifically by cigarette smoke. The aim of this study is to prove if there will be weight changes if this factor is affected. [pic]

Roy’s Adaptation Model
As for the study, the researchers are to prove if there will be weight changes among the subjects. Based on the theory, a person adapts to changes that occurs around him. If the subjects are to adapt to an environment involving consistent cigarette smoke exposure, the researchers have to find out what adaptation would occur among them. The researchers would only focus on weight changes, either it be gain or loss.

Katharine Kolcaba’s theory of Comfort
The theory stated is related to the study as the subjects claim that the activity done is comfortable to them. They claim that this is done when they are under stress and is relieving to them. Conceptual Framework

According to the diagram, smoking can either cause weight gain or weight loss. The reason behind weight loss is because of TNF-alpha release which is a leptin. This triggers release of free fatty acids that can later lead to weight loss.

Another is weight gain which is triggered by continuous exposure to nicotine. This can trigger dopamine release and also fat deposition which leads to weight gain. Another is when the glumerular filtration rate is increased. This is caused by vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles in the nephrons. These then will cause release of renin which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II. This then releases aldosterone that leads to fluid and salt retention which can be seen as edema. This will cause weight gain.

Statement of the Problem
The study aims to determine if there will be weight changes among individuals aging 20-30 if they are involved in habitual smoking.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. Will there be weight change if an individual is engaged in habitual smoking?

2. If so, what change will be present, is it weight gain or weight loss?

3. When related...
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