Effects of Pollution

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION Air Pollution contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes that can endanger the health of human beings, plants, and animals, or that can damage materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors. Every year, more than sixty-six million tons of poisonous gas is emptied into the air, twelve million tons of hydrocarbons, six million tons of nitrogen oxides, one hundred fifty thousand tons of aldehyde, and five hundred thousand tons of sulfur compounds. Approximately 80% of our air pollution comes from hydrocarbons released by vegetation.( "Air Pollution."  19 Feb 2013) Air pollution is caused by many things such as car fumes, burning of fossil fuels, furnaces. By letting all these gases release into the air, it makes it harder to breathe. Ozone can cause part of your lungs to close off and make it harder to breathe. The effects on health of transport-related air pollution are one of the leading concerns about transport. Research in recent decades consistently indicates that outdoor air pollution harms human health, and the evidence points to air pollution stemming from transport as an important contributor to the adverse effects. The potential health effects of air pollution range from subtle physiological changes inside the body to florid symptoms such as nose and throat irritation, shortness of breath, coughing and chest tightness. People suffering from asthma or chronic respiratory diseases will experience an increase in symptoms when exposed to air pollutants. Although individual's reaction to air pollutant depends on various factors, people of all age groups are affected by poor air quality. Vulnerable groups such as children and the elderly are especially susceptible to the effects of air pollution. Studies based on local data have revealed that there was a strong association between high pollution incidents and both hospital admissions and premature deaths for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. (The Health Effects of Air Pollution,2009) BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health. Health effects range anywhere from minor irritation of eyes and the upper respiratory system to chronic respiratory disease, heart disease, lung cancer, and death. Air pollution has been shown to cause acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults. It has also been shown to worsen the condition of people with preexisting heart or lung disease. Among asthmatics, air pollution has been shown to aggravate the frequency and severity of attacks. Both short-term and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. Health impact of air pollution depends on the pollutant type, its concentration in the air, length of exposure, other pollutants in the air, and individual susceptibility. Different people are affected by air pollution in different ways. Poor people, undernourished people, very young and very old, and people with preexisting respiratory disease and other ill health, are more at risk. In cities, for instance, poor tend to live and work in most heavily polluted areas, and in rural areas poor are more likely to cook with dirtier fuels. In some countries, air quality standards tend to be more lax around industrial areas in cities, where many poor tend to live in squatter settlements. Poor also tend to be more malnourished, more likely to suffer from ill health and disease, and have less access to health care. Air pollutants can also indirectly affect human health through acid rain, by polluting drinking water and entering the food chain, and through global warming and associated climate change and sea level rise. As a result of several decades of tighter emission standards (Vinod Mishra,2003) STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study is aimed to determine the following:
* What are the potential health effects of...
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