Effects of Online Games

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES

CONCEPTUAL AND RESEARCH LITERATURE
Computer had its origin in the late 1940s. Originally, computers were considered as machines meant exclusively for doing calculations. The name computer was derived from the word Compute based on the fact that the machine was meant for doing computations. In course of time, computers were being used for a number of wide and varied applications ranging from playing games, downloading applications and documents, communicating with remote machines, watching movies, performing online transactions, doing banking and for virtual reality applications. The methods of using computers also took a new direction during the past years. Initially computers were used as single standalone machines kept isolated from other computers. Gradually, computers were interconnected to form computer networks. This networking provides several advantages. Networking allows sharing data as well as resources between the networked computers. Soon the number of networks began to grow. More and more networks were formed in different areas. Later, the various small computer networks located in different places were interconnected to form large networks. Finally, a large network of several computer networks, spreading across the world, was formed. This network came to be known as the Internet. Thus, the Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible interconnected computer network that transmits data based on the standard protocols. Due to the large availability of information, the Internet is sometimes referred to as Information Superhighway.

The Internet influences our day-to-day lives indifferent ways. We will see and experience this technology benefits us in different activities. Perhaps this is the only technology that has affected the people irrespective of their location, language or profession. It has made a commendable impact in different areas especially in the areas of learning, working, living and communicating. It has reached to such a state that nobody can escape from the influence of technology. (James, 2010) According to Kramer (2000), game is any activity which is executed only for pleasure and without conscious purpose. In this definition every activity that brings pleasure is a game. While Rouse (2012) define gaming as the running of specialized application is known as electronic games, especially on machines designed for such programs and, in a more recent trend, using personal computers on the Internet in which case the activity is known as online gaming. A person who plays electronic games is called a gamer. The term “gaming” originated as a synonym for “gambling” although most electronic games today do not involve gambling in the traditional sense. In the past, video games were simple blocks or blips moving around a screen, like PONG or Space Invaders, and usually involved simple gameplay mechanics that were fun and easy to understand in a matter of minutes. But with that advent of home consoles and better sound and graphics, video games have become much more sophisticated.

Video games have come a long way in a short period of time, so the experiences of both the players and the developers have changed, even over just the past decade. In the beginning, video games were mainly played on arcade machines. PONG was the first at-home game, but the real fun started when Atari and Intellivision released systems that allowed people to play their favorite games at home, including Pac-Man and Space Invaders. In the early 1980s, however, arcade machines were going out of style, and Atari’s next home system, the 5200, didn’t sell. To many people in the video game industry, this was known as “the crash.” This was when Nintendo arrived on the scene and introduced the first NES console.

At the same time as home video game systems were falling out of favor, the first user-friendly personal computers were being released, including the Apple II, TRS Color Computer,...
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