Effects of Online and Offline Games to Student Nurses

Topics: Human, Public health, Prevention Pages: 5 (800 words) Published: May 21, 2011

The body is more than the sum of it’s parts. This holds as a granite truth

more than ever , as knowledge about the origins , nature and purpose of human

beings expand, discovered and re –discovered. Human beings can also be

considered as a concrete example of an open system. An open system reacts

and adjusts itself to the environment.

Betty Neuman (Neuman & Fawcett ,2002) , a community health nurse and

clinical psychologist, developed a model based on the individuals relationship to

stress , the reaction to it, and reconstitution factors that are dynamic in nature.

Reconstitution is the state of adaption to stressors.

Neuman used Selye’s definition of stress, which is the nonspecific

response to the body to any demand made on it. Stress increases the demand

for re-adjustment. This demand is nonspecific demand for activity. Stressors are

the tension-producing stimuli that result in stress; this maybe positive or negative

Neuman (1995; Neuman & Fawcett, 2002) adhered to the metaparadigm

concepts and has developed numerous additional concepts for her model.

Person. A “client / client system, as a composite of variables (physiological,

psychological sociocultural developmental, and spiritual), each of which is

a subpart of all parts …forms the whole of the client… a basic structure of

protective concentric rings, for retention attainment or maintenance of system

stability and integrity”.

Five person variable or subsystems:

Physiological- Refer of the physicochemical structure and function of
the body.

Psychological- Refers to mental processes and emotions.

Socio-cultural- Refers to relationships; and social/cultural

expectations and activities.

Spiritual- Refers to the influence of spiritual beliefs.

Developmental- Refers to those processes related to development

over the lifespan.

ENVIRONMENT. Composed of both internal and external forces surrounding the

client, influencing and being influenced by the client at any point in time, and an

open system.

HEALTH. Defined as a “continuum; wellness and illness are at opposites

ends…”. Variances from wellness or varying degrees of system instability are

caused by stressors invasion of normal line of defense.

NURSING. The major concern is to maintain client system stability through

accurately assessing environmental and other stressors and assisting in client

adjustments to maintain optimal wellness.

Neuman categorizes stressors as intrapersonal stressors those that

occur within an individual; interpersonal stressor those that occur between

individuals and extrapersonal stressor those that occur outside the person. The

individuals reaction to stressors depends on the strength of the line of defense.

When the line of defense fail, the resulting reaction depends on the strength of

the line of resistance. As part of the reaction, a person’s system can adapt to a

stressor, an effect known as reconstitution. Nursing interventions focus on

retaining or maintaining system stability. The interventions are carried out on

three preventive levels.

Neuman adapts the concept of levels of prevention from Caplan’s

conceptual model and relates these prevention levels to nursing. Primary

prevention is used to protect the organism before it encounters a harmful

stressor reducing the possibility of encountering the stressor or strengthening

the organism to decrease it’s reaction to stressor. Secondary prevention

attempts to reduce the effect or possible effects of stressors through early

diagnosis and effective treatment of symptoms. Tertiary prevention attempts to

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