Effects of Mongol Rule

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The Mongols ruled China and Russia, yet the effect of their rule in China and Russia, while in some ways similar, was quite different, politically and economically. Genghis Khan, born in the 1770s, was elected khagan (a title of imperial rank) of all Mongol tribes in 1206. Kubilai Khan, Genghis Khan’s grandson, was the commander of the Mongol forces responsible for the conquest of China; he became khagan in 1260. Kubilai Khan founded the Yuan Dynasty. Batu, the ruler of the Golden Horde of the dynasty, another grandson of Genghis Khan, was responsible for the invasion of Russia beginning in 1236. The Mongol rule over China was overbearing, while the Mongol rule over Russia was more disengaged.

The political impact of he Mongols was under the rule of Kubilai Khan. They captured China and established the Yuan Dynasty in 1234. The Mongols controlled the Chinese area south of Mongolia. They established direct control over Mongolia, and ruled with a bureaucracy. There was no scholar gentry, no civil service exam, and Confucianism was not used. The Chinese were also not allowed in the government. They also had their hands on the social and cultural policies of China. The Mongol conquest of Russia reduced the Russian princes to tribute-payers. Payments fell heavily on the peasants, who found themselves reduced to serfdom. Until the mid- nineteenth century, serfdom was typical of Russian agricultural labor. Some Russian cities, such as Moscow, recovered their fortunes by the increased trade the Mongol empire permitted. After 1328, Moscow also profited by serving as the tribute collector for the Mongol overlords. The head of the Orthodox Church in Russia selected Moscow as his capital. In 1380, the princes of Moscow turned against the Mongols and led an alliance of Russian forces that defeated the Mongols at the battle of Kulikova. The victory broke the hold of the Mongols on Russia, although the nomads continued to make raids into the fifteenth century. The Mongol...
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