Effects of Interference in Memory Recall of Students

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EFFECTS OF INTERFERENCE IN MEMORY RECALL OF STUDENTS1

Effects of Interference in Memory Recall of Students
Rhodelyn B. Javier
Department of Psychology
Ateneo de Naga University
December 8, 2011

EFFECTS OF INTERFERENCE IN MEMORY RECALL OF STUDENTS2
Abstract
Memory recalls of students were examined whether it will be greatly affected by interferences presented. Based on previous studies, younger students can remember more than the older ones. However, the results suggested that the performance of the students were not affected by the interferences or visual distractions.

EFFECTS OF INTERFERENCE IN MEMORY RECALL OF STUDENTS3
According to Merriam Webster, memory as “the power or process of reproducing or recalling what has been learned and retained especially through associative mechanisms”. This is also the “store of things learned and retained from an organism's activity or experience as evidenced by modification of structure or behavior or by recall and recognition.” And recall is to bring back to mind or to remind. On the other hand, interference is an obstruction or something that produces confusion. In an everyday life of students, memory, recall and interference play an important role in studying and also in other aspects of daily life events.

Fernandes and Grady (2008), mentioned that in today’s world a person is in a situation where there is an attempt to remember things other than what is the on-going activity. An example, while a person is driving and talking to a passenger, a person tried to remember the directions to the friend’s house (Fernandes and Grady, 2008). Fernandes and Grady (2008), cited that it is reasonable to look forward to the degree of memory interference that is experienced will depend on several factors including but not restricted to (1) the type of distraction, (2) the kind of memory task, and the (3) the characteristics of the person doing the remembering.

Age is supposed to be related with recall deficit resulting from a damage in common giving out resources significant for many cognitive operations ( Craik, 1983; Craik & Byrd, 1982; Rabinowitz, Craik, & Ackerman, 1982). Fernandes and Grady (2008), cited Puglisi, Park, Smith, & Dudley, 1988; Park et al., 1989; Salthouse, Rogan, & Prill, 1984, it has been shown in several studies that older adults are more prone than the younger ones to distraction, when a concurrent task is performed with encoding, and the memory test is free recall. Though in other studies conducted by Anderson et al., 1998; Baddeley, Logie, Bressi, Della Sala, & Spinnler,

EFFECTS OF INTERFERENCE IN MEMORY RECALL OF STUDENTS4
1986, Light & Prull 1995; Nyberg, Nilsson, Olofsson, & Backman, 1997; Park, Puglisi, Smith, & Dudley, 1987 as cited by Fernandes and Grady (2008).
Anderson et al., 1998; Baddeley et al., 1984; Craik et al., 1996; Naveh-Benjamin et al., 1998 as mentioned by Fernandes and Grady (2008), the effects of distraction at retrieval are more basic. In difference to encoding, most studies find memory is affected only a little by “Divided Attention” (DA) manipulations at retrieval.

Guerard, Tremblay & Saint-Aubin (2007) mentioned that binding, which was defined as “a powerful mechanism by which information from different sources and of different nature is somehow assembled. And such a process brings cost-cutting measure to information processing and augments memory capacity.” By associating verbal items with spatial information, where items are located or attributes, how the items look like, example the color or format, in this way our memory system saves time in processing the what to-be remembered stimuli. However, there was one question raised whether binding is essentially always useful to memory. And to address this issue, Guerard, Tremblay, & Saint-Aubin (2007), adopted an approach which is to endorse the integration of verbal and spatial information and to whether phonological...
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