Effects of Global Warming

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Effects of global warming
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about (primarily) effects during the 21st century. For longer-term effects, see Long-term effects of global warming.

Summary of climate change impacts.
The effects of global warming are the ecological and social changes caused by the rise in global temperatures. There is a scientific consensus that climate change is occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver.[1] Evidence ofclimate change includes the instrumental temperature record, rising sea levels, and decreased snow cover in theNorthern Hemisphere.[2] According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in humangreenhouse gas concentrations.[3] Projections of future climate change suggest further global warming, sea level rise, and an increase in the frequency and severity of some extreme weather events.[4] Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC) have agreed to "stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would preventdangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."[5] Contents

* 1 Definitions
* 2 Temperature changes
* 2.1 SRES emissions scenarios
* 2.2 Projected warming in context
* 3 Physical impacts
* 3.1 Radiative forcing
* 3.2 Effects on weather
* 3.2.1 Extreme weather
* 3.3 Cryosphere
* 3.4 Oceans
* 3.4.1 Acidification
* 3.4.2 Oxygen depletion
* 3.4.3 Sea level rise
* 3.4.4 Ocean temperature rise
* 4 Regions
* 4.1 Observed impacts
* 4.2 Projected impacts
* 5 Social systems
* 5.1 Food supply
* 5.1.1 Projections
* Food security
* 5.1.2 Agriculture
* 5.2 Health
* 5.2.1 Projections
* 5.3 Water resources
* 5.4 Migration and conflict
* 5.5 Aggregate impacts
* 5.5.1 Observed impacts
* 5.5.2 Projected impacts
* 6 Biological systems
* 6.1 Observed impacts on biological systems
* 6.2 Projected impacts on biological systems
* 7 Abrupt or irreversible changes
* 7.1 Biogeochemical cycles
* 7.2 Greenland and West Antarctic Ice sheets
* 7.3 The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation * 7.4 Irreversibilities
* 7.4.1 Commitment to radiative forcing
* 7.4.2 Irreversible impacts
* 8 See also
* 9 Footnotes
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
See also: attribution of recent climate change
In this article, "climate change" means a change in climate that persists over a sustained period of time.[6][7] The World Meteorological Organization defines this time period as 30 years.[6]Examples of climate change include increases in global surface temperature (global warming), changes in rainfall patterns, and changes in the frequency of extreme weather events. Changes in climate may be due to natural causes, e.g., changes in the sun's output, or due to human activities, e.g., changing the composition of the atmosphere.[8] Any human-induced changes in climate will occur against the "background" of natural climatic variations.[8] Also, the term "anthropogenic forcing" refers to the influence exerted on a habitat or chemical environment by humans, as opposed to a natural process.[9] -------------------------------------------------

Temperature changes

Global mean surface temperature difference from the average for 1880–2009. The graph above shows the average of a set of temperature simulations for the 20th century (black line), followed by projected temperatures for the 21st century based...
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