THE EFFECT OF COMMERCIALISATION OF FISHING ON FAMILY LIVELIHOOD IN BUSIA DISTRICT
BY WERE LILIAN
A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF A BACHELOR’S DEGREE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF NKUMBA UNIVERSITY
CHAPTER ONE GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction to the study
Since the 1980s, Uganda has been implementing liberalisation policies. In 1981, the Government of Uganda adopted stabilisation and structural adjustment policies but these were quickly abandoned in 1984 partly due to the intensification of civil war. But prior to the abandonment, the stabilisation programmes had attained short term success particularly in the period 1981 – 1983: Inflation was tamed, parallel market activities had been reduced, production had revived and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates were positive (Ochieng 2000). With a new government in place in 1986, Uganda appeared to follow a path of development that would be defined by a “Marxist” type of ideology. The new government philosophy as articulated in its ten point programme was anti the very institutions pushing for adjustment namely International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and their creed defined by currency devaluation and free market economics (Ochieng 2000). However, the period 1985 – 1986 was characterised by ceaseless political chaos, declining economic trends and erosion of any kind of economic gains that had been attained in the early years of that decade and before. Thus in 1987, the crisis in the economy characterised by among others, extreme widespread poverty, three digit inflation, balance of payments problems, collapse of the economy, excess demand coupled with a shortage of goods and services and the need for an “urgent” type of development meant that the state had to act. Subsequently in 1987, the government of Uganda started implementing an economic recovery programme that aimed at restoring economic stability, establishing more realistic relative prices free from non-market distortions and rehabilitating the country‟s social and economic infrastructure. Among the stabilisation policies were initiatives that aimed at trade and product market liberalisation. The thrusts of these policies were; the need to increase economic efficiency due to international competition; to break down tariff walls that promote economic inefficiency; and to remove government controls that were thought to promote corruption. With the liberalisation of the product markets was the need to ensure that price controls of products are phased out, and subsidies and tax incentives eliminated. In summary, these
liesez faire policies had the dual purpose of first taming demand and secondly bolstering supply through stabilisation or demand management policies and adjustment or supply augmenting programmes respectively. What is important to note however is that existing research in Uganda and elsewhere seems to indicate that the effects of adjustment and stabilisation affects women and men differently and many times women‟s conditions of living are often relatively more negatively affected. (Ahikire 1998, Elson 1995 and Manyire 1995).
1.1 Background to the study
The Government of Uganda has designed poverty reduction policies in the framework of liberalisation. In 1997, Uganda developed the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) that has arguably been described as a holistic framework for the eradication of poverty in the country. Subsequently, the Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture (PMA), which aims at replacing subsistence production with commercialised agriculture, has been developed. The fisheries sector is considered part of the agricultural sector and has since in the recent years been playing an increasingly important role in the economy with its export revenues expanding significantly. In Uganda today, fish like coffee, cotton, textiles, tea, beef, hides and skins, horticulture products...
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