Effects of Exercise on Humans

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Effects of Exercise on the Human Organism
John Doe
Presbyterian College
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for
PHE 430 – Exercise Physiology
October 23, 2012

Quarter & Year: Fall, 2012
Address: 2100 College Street
City, State, Zip: Clinton, SC 29108
Phone: 864-205-1468
E-mail: John.Doe@presbyterian.edu
Instructor: Makayla Dixon

Effects of Exercise on the Human Organism
Exercise is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposive in the sense that a development or continuation of physical fitness is an objective. Exercise provides many effects on the human organism. Two of the different types of factors that exercise affects are the physiology of the human body and one’s physical fitness. Exercise affects the physiology of a human being in so many ways that deal with the many organ systems within the body. The physical fitness factor is also affected by exercise because exercise is a subcategory of physical activity. How efficient the exercise of a human is will determine how quality of a physical fitness that human will possess. The factors that exercise effects on the human organism vary from physiological factors within the human’s body as well as the human’s physical fitness (Hahn, p.83).

One of the main physiological effects exercise has on the human body is bioenergetics, the breaking down of foodstuffs into energy. Foodstuffs consist of carbohydrates, fats, and protein nutrients. The carbohydrate, fat, and protein nutrients consumed daily provide necessary energy to maintain body functions both at rest and during various forms of physical activity (McArdle, p.5). Carbohydrates serve several important functions related to exercise performance. The energy derived from the breakdown of glucose and glycogen is ultimately used to power muscular contraction as well as other forms of biologic work (McArdle, p.11). The other type of foodstuff that serves as a main energy source for the human body is the fats. Fats constitutes the ideal cellular fuel because each molecule carries large quantities of energy per unit weight, is easily transported and stored, and is readily converted into energy (McArdle, p.25). While carbohydrates and fats serve as primary energy sources of the human organism, protein is not a primary energy source during exercise. The theory that protein has only a limited extent as an energy source can be based on two observations: “protein’s primary role is to provide the amino-acid building blocks for protein synthesis and the findings of early studies that concluded only minimal protein breakdown during endurance exercise as reflected by the quantity of urinary nitrogen in the immediate 24-hour recovery period,” (McArdle, p.35). The more quantitative and qualitative a human’s exercise is structured will determine how well the foodstuffs that enters the body will be broken down through the metabolic process and bioenergetics.

Through exercise, these foodstuffs are broken down into a high-energy phosphate called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). Adenosine Triphosphate is the most immediate chemical source of energy for a cell and the formation of ATP within the muscle involves the conversion of food stuffs to carbon dioxide (Edington, p.35). Adenosine Triphosphate formation occurs in three ways: phosphocreatine breakdown, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Phosphocreatine breakdown and glycolysis occur through anaerobic pathways, which do not require oxygen while oxidative phosphorylation occurs through aerobic pathways that do require oxygen. Anaerobic and aerobic adenosine triphosphate production are the systems that convert the foodstuffs in the body into sources of energy for the human body (Dixon, 2012). High power and power-endurance activities have a high-energy demand over a short period of time. These forms of exercise can be classified as muscular strength and muscular endurance, both...
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