Effects of Exercise on Diabetes

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Abstract
Type II diabetes is a major health problem in the United States and around the world. Ir is a metabolic disorder resulting from the body’s inability to produce enough or properly utilize insulin. Of all the diabetic diagnoses, 85-90% of them are type II diabetes, which attributed to 224,092 deaths in 2002 in the United States alone. Exercise has long been looked at as a treatment regiment for type II diabetic patients due to its improvement on many metabolic parameters including improved glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma glucose, body composition, lean body mass, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Based on research articles reviewed from Oakland Universities Kresge Library databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, and Medline, an essential component of controlling type II diabetes is to engage in regular physical activity. The optimal exercise program is a combination of both endurance and resistance exercise at least three nonconsecutive days per week. Exercise is essential to not only controlling the adverse effects of type II diabetes but also to improving individuals overall quality of life. Keywords: Type II diabetes, resistance training, aerobic training, improvement, glycemic control, exercise, effects

The Effects of Exercise on Type II Diabetes
Diabetes is becoming an increasing problem in the United States and around the world. In fact, diabetes is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the United States with type II diabetes accounting for ninety percent of all diabetic cases (Albright, Et al., 2000). The numbers surrounding diabetic cases are overwhelming. Over the past forty years the number of diabetic cases in the United States alone have increased six times over and now cost the United States more than one-hundred thirty-two billon dollars in medical cost every year (Taylor, 2009). According to Taylor (2009), the number of type II diabetes cases are increasing so rapidly that the chronic illness is now considered a pandemic. Type II diabetes will be one of the most challenging health problems of this millennium. Diabetes contributed to 224,092 deaths in 2002 alone (Taylor, 2009). In an effort to help control the increasing rate of type II diabetes related deaths, there has been an increasing interest on the effects of exercise on type II diabetes maintenance. Today, many researchers are interested in the effects of aerobic and resistance training on individuals with type II diabetes. The goal is to find a correlation between exercise and several parameters of the disease including: glycemic control, insulin levels, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride levels, weight, and body composition. Because type II diabetes is an illness resulting from insulin resistance the effects of exercise on insulin levels and glycemic control in type II diabetics is very important in determining whether exercise is an effective treatment regime.

Type II diabetes is an illness resulting from increased insulin resistance in the body. Individuals with type II diabetes have normal or above normal production of insulin in the body, but their bodies do not respond efficiently to the insulin that has been secreted (World Book Encyclopedia, 1993). The glucose metabolism in an individual involves a balance between the insulin that is produced in the body and the body’s responsiveness to it. An individual becomes at risk for type II diabetes when this balance is no longer controlled. The lack of control begins when cells in muscle, fat, and the liver lose their ability to respond to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. Due to this resistance, the pancreas increases its production of insulin, eventually causing the insulin-producing cells to give out, resulting in the imbalance between insulin action and insulin production (Taylor, 2009). There are several risk factors that contribute to type II diabetes, many of which could...
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