Effects of Drugs

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Effects of Drugs

A Term Paper
Presented to the Faculty
Of the English Department
Of Hope Christian High School

By:
Aldrin Aaron M. Agulan
High 4 - Purity
February 27 2013

Table of contents………

Acknowledgement……………………………..….

Introduction …..………………………………..…….1

Definition of terms …………………………….…....2

Effects of Drugs ...……….……………………..….3

Complication of addiction ....……….………………14

Conclusion …………………………………………15

Findings …………………….………………………21

Bibliography………………………………………...23

Appendix……………………………………………24

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank God for his unyielding guidance on my path through this term paper. I would also like to extend my gratitude to all my family members who have supported me through the long hours. This paper would not be possible if not for the endless mentoring of my teacher Dr. Bella Divina Lastly, I would like to give thanks to my one and only almamater who have been my home since the start of my education and the wealth of knowledge she has given me.

-Aldrin

Introduction

Many people do not understand why individuals become addicted to drugs or how drugs change the brain to foster compulsive drug abuse. They mistakenly view drug abuse and addiction as strictly a social problem and may characterize those who take drugs as morally weak. One very common belief is that drug abusers should be able to just stop taking drugs if they are only willing to change their behavior. What people often underestimate is the complexity of drug addiction—that it is a disease that impacts the brain and because of that, stopping drug abuse is not simply a matter of willpower. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives.

Drug addiction can be defined as a pattern of compulsive use of a psychoactive substance to the point where drug use interferes with one’s normal activities in life. In addition, cessation of drug use by an addict often leads to distressing physical and/or psychological withdrawal symptoms and drug craving. While acute drug withdrawal ends hours to days after cessation of use, drug cravings seem to be persistently elicited by drug cues for extended periods, or possibly permanently Drug dependence is a distinct phenomenon from drug use, and therefore may require a separate evolutionary interpretation. For example, compulsive use of nicotine by smokers is very different from ceremonial used of peyote. The former is likely due to neuroadaptations stemming from repeated administration of certain types of drugs, while the latter is more likely to involve desired changes in perception of the world and of oneself. This paper will primarily discuss addiction rather than drug use.

As elaborated upon by Berridge & Robinson (1998), repeated administration of addictive drugs in rats cause persistent changes in behavioral reactions to drugs and drug-associated cues, as well as structural changes in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system neurons. The mesolimbic DA system has long been known to be involved in drug reward, as well as natural rewards such as food and sex. In particular, it is becoming increasingly clear that DA mediates in particular appetitive aspects of reward, or reward ‘wanting.’ This is in contrast to reward ‘liking,’ or the hedonic impact of rewards once they are received (which is mediated by other brain systems, perhaps especially opioid systems). In the absence of drugs, ‘wanting’ of an expected reward and ‘liking’ of the reward once it is received would be proportional.

Definitions

Definition of Drug Abuse

Drug abuse is using a drug excessively, or for purposes for which it was not medically intended.

Note: Drug abuse lead to drug dependence or addiction.

Definition of...
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