Article: Effects of direct-to-consumer advertising and clinical guidelines on appropriate use of human papillomavirus DNA tests. George Mason University
By- Amandeep Rajpal
The purpose of this particular study is to evaluate the direct effects of Direct-to-consumer advertising and clinical guidelines on appropriate use of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests. The author tries to determine the influences of consumer marketing and professional guidelines on use of various health care products and services available to today's patient population. An attempt has been made to understand the mindset of the consumer and which factors impact the appropriate and inappropriate use of healthcare products, in this case the (HPV) DNA tests. This paper has an established direction because it takes into accounts various aspects such as the opinions of manufacturers, consumers and others and also accounts for the roles and relative effects of direct-to-consumer marketing and clinical guides. 2) LITERATURE REVIEW:
The literary review contains an in-depth analysis of the issue and follows a logical sequence but barely makes a fleeting mention of prior studies conducted related to the topic. There is a brief mention of a study conducted on the impact of DTC advertising for antidepressants. In this article there is poor portrayal of any evidence of a relationship to any related research done in the past. The article does refer to current trends of DTC (Direct to Consumer) advertising and its impacts. 3) THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES:
There is a strong presence of the theoretical framework in this research. The basis is built on the hypothesis that prescription drugs, medical procedures and diagnostic tests are underused, overused or misused. The concept is further studied and elaborated where potential for Direct-to-consumer advertising and clinical guidelines is explored with minimal inappropriate use of medical resources. The roles and relative effects of clinical guidelines and DTC advertising are examined in this study due to an increased use of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test for cervical cancer screening. The hypothesis is tested precisely and chronologically starting March, 2000 till September,2005.During this time frame the tests included various stages of FDA approval of the HPV DNA tests, development of American Cancer Society guidelines, and the various phases of the launch of DTC advertising. 4) METHODOLOGY:
The relative variables and concepts are clearly defined in this study. The main independent variables in this study include residence in one of the DTC or comparison city metropolitan areas, if the period was before or after the broadcast of the DTC advertisement, whether the period was before or after clinical guidelines were released. The study also accounts for other independent variables such as patient age, ASC-US diagnosis, urban/rural residence, regions of residence, total months of enrollment, type of private insurance, specialty of the provider submitting test claims, clinical guideline releases etc. The study made use of the difference-in-differences analysis concept in order to control the secular trends in the use of HPV DNA tests. The study compared the use of HPV DNA tests before and after DTC advertising. The DTC advertisement campaign tried to capture the urban markets through television advertisements for three months time frame and also through national women's magazines. 5) SAMPLE:
This study was conducted on approximately 500,000 women between the ages of 21 to 64 years, enrolled at least twelve consecutive months starting January 2001 through December 2005.This data was from the Med stat Group's Market Scan database. The authors claim that they randomly selected 500,000 female patients from an approximate 29 million...