EFFECTS OF DEPENDENCE ON PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS ON STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE IN SCHOOL (A CASE STUDY OF OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA)
BEING GRADUATE PROJECT FOR B.A (ED) DEGREE
LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY, OJO
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS
AND COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY
This is the opening chapter of this research. It embodies the background to the study, statement of problem, purpose of study, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of study, scope and limitation and conceptual clarification.
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Drug taking has always been with us. Ndika (1982) observed that man’s experience with drugs is rooted in antiquity, it echoed out of the primate jungle but its only in recent time that the transformation of drugs and their users from an unverified tradition to science became possible.
Indeed, today, more than ever before, we live in what can be called a drug taken culture, aspirin, sleeping pills, cough mixtures, antibiotics, tea, coffee, cocoa, cigarettes and wines are but a few familiar drugs which are commonly used in our contemporary society. Few terms appear more commonly and with more confusing or misleading meanings than drug, drug use, drug misuse, drug abuse and drug addiction. Yet, we have to know quite clearly what these terms mean so that true communication and understanding can take place.
The term ‘drug’ in the main, would be related to “any substance that, when taken into a living organism, may modify one or more of its functions” (Kobiowu 2006). In her opinion, Badejo (1998) views drug as any substance of medicinal preparation which has effect on living tissues. She also added that drug is anything that goes into the body and modifies one or more of its function. Bolarin and Badejo (1998) also posit that every drug is a potential poison depending on the way it is used. Drug can be used when they are put to normal use which implies that they are used according to the doctor’s prescription. In contrast, drug misuse occurs when a drug is taken in excess or underdose or where no medical reason exists.
In technical terms, Kobiowu (2006) defines drug abuse as “a particular application of a drug more destructive than constructive for society or the individual”. Also, Lahey (2004) views drug abuse as “any drug that causes physical functioning”. Explicitly, Omokhodion and Pemede (2005) explain drug abuse as “the use of drug other than for medical purposes”. They also claim that drug abusers are generally seeking some form of mental escape when they start abusing drug and this is the dependence on psychotropic drugs. While psychotropic drugs are mind-altering drugs (Omokhodion and Pemede 2005).
In the same vein, Bolarin & Badejo (1998) observes that drug abuse is the inappropriate or unofficial excessive use of psychotropic drugs. Psychotropic drugs are also known as psychoactive drugs and are defined as “drugs which alter sensation, mood, conscious experience or other psychological or behavioural functions (Carroll, 2000).
To put it succinctly, psychotropic drugs are chemical substances that change the perceptions, feelings and behavior of an organism. The extent of these changes depend on the nature of the ingested substance, the amount present in the body, the rate and speed of administration and the psychological state of individuals.
Omokhodion and Pemede (2005) have observed that psychotropic drugs are mind altering drugs and that after a while; the continued use of psychotropic drugs may become a habit, which results to drug dependence and ultimately turns the user to a drug abuser. The most common types of psychotropic drugs that are abused include, heroin, alcohol, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine, marijuana, opium cannabis Lysergic acid diethyl (LSD), etc. Lahey (2004) classified psychotropic drugs into four different categories: (i)...
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