HABITS AND FACTORS AFFECTING UNDERGRADUATES’ ACCEPTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL COMPUTER GAMES: A CASE STUDY IN A MALAYSIAN UNIVERSITY Roslina Ibrahim 1,Azizah Jaafar2, Khalili Khalil3 1 Advanced Informatics School (AIS), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100, Kuala Lumpur 2 Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor 3 International Islamic University, Gombak, Selangor Malaysia 1 firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Educational computer games (ECG) are regarded as the promising teaching and learning tool due to its fun and engagement features as well as preferences of younger generations. Most research have explored on how ECG helps student learn, but little are known on factors contribute to students’ perceptions and acceptance of ECG. It is important to understand how students perceive ECG since they are the main ECG’s stakeholders. This study investigates factors that affect (or do not affect) students to use ECG using seven constructs modified from UTAUT and past researches. Data analysis was done using structural equation modelling (SEM) with both measurement and structural models. Results show that performance expectancy, attitude and enjoyment factors were positively significant towards behavioural intention to use ECG while effort expectancy, selfefficacy and anxiety were found otherwise. The findings are useful for ECG developers to understand their target users’ preferences and also for university administration for any integration of technology in the future.
1 INTRODUCTION Educational games are regarded as future teaching and learning (T&L) methods that better suits the preferences of younger generation, as reported by Federation of American Scientists (FAS) , ,. This new generation, growing up in an environment with advanced computer technology, high speed broadband, social networking applications, game consoles, multiplayer online games, online videos and so on, are found to have different preferences in teaching and learning approach , , . Therefore, many researchers believed that integration of these technologies into their education would enhance their T&L experience and performance ,,. Games are believed to have diverse advantages compared to conventional teaching and learning approach. Gee has proposed that it is able to teach 21st century skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, collaboration and team working ,. From the perspective of rich games genre and design opportunities, EG developers have lots of opportunities to develop games based on learning outcomes and theories ,
Educational games, structural equation model, acceptance theory, UTAUT
, learning styles and learning domain , , . Several studies have been done to investigate the effectiveness of ECG as a learning tool. Garris et al , have found that EGs are able to help student on various learning domains such as cognitive, affective as well as psychomotor skills. EGs are also found to increase learning motivation as demonstrated in , , . Motivation is among the most important element in learning, intrinsically or extrinsically. A study by Garzotto,  revealed that multiplayer online games provide learning benefits on affective level as well as knowledge domain. Other studies also acknowledged the benefits of using games for learning such as in , ,  that stated game motivates learning, offer immediate feedback, support skills, and influences changes in behavior and attitudes. However, literatures analysis shows that, with many studies suggest the benefits of ECG, there are also studies that found otherwise. For example, a study by Egenfeldt-nielsen  found that a popular off the shelf games name Civilization did not improve student learning performance but only on students retention. Another study reported that most teachers are sceptical...
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