According to Collins Dictionary (2011:245), child labour is defined as the full time employment of children below a minimum age laid down statute. Similarly, child labour is meant by the use of children to do work that should be done by adults (Cambridge, 2011) and MacMillan Dictionary (2009) also defined child labour as the employment of children, especially children who are legally too young to work. In addition, International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions 138 (1973) and 182 (1999) defined child labourers as all children younger than 12 working in any economic activities, children 12-14 years old engaged in more than light work, and all children engaged in the worst forms of child labour – in which they are enslaved, forcibly recruited, prostituted, trafficked, forced into illegal activities or exposed to hazards (UNICEF, 2006). As well as, in our opinion, we describe child labour as work done by kids for full-time under the age of 15 and it prevents them from attending school, such as unlimited or unrestricted local work which it may dangerous and cause hazardous to their physical, mental or emotional health. Three Asian countries were cited as leading the world in the number of products made by child workers, a study by the US Department of Labour showed. These countries are India, Bangladesh and Philippines (La Putt, 2011). Moreover, it was estimated that at least 250 million children between the age of 5 and 14, work for a living in developing countries, nearly half of them are full time. Many millions more are uncounted and uncountable (UNICEF, 2001). In other words, of an estimated 215 child labourers around the globe approximately 114 million, (53%) are in Asia and the Pacific, 14 million (7%) live in Latin America and 65 million (30%) live in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNICEF, 2009). At present, according to The Star newspaper (2011), Malaysia is among Southeast Asia’s top importers of foreign labours, which employing more than 2.5 million mainly Indonesian maids, as well as Cambodia are using children as maid and supplying them to Malaysia in order to cater the high demand. Consequently, in Pakistan, child labour clearly documented as against the law but the government didn’t do anything and being irresponsible pertaining to this matter (Azam, 1999). There are several effects in child labour that can be identified particularly in Asian countries; illiteracy, reach maturity too early, exposed to unhealthy environment and fraud or discrimination towards children. 2.0 4 Effects of Child Labour in Asian Countries
First and foremost, identifying the obvious consequences is child labour caused children become illiteracy. Illiteracy is one of the most effects in child labour in Asian countries. Illiterate have few meanings which is defined as; unable to read and write or showing lack of culture, especially in language and literature (Harper, 2010). As we know, education is vital in our life and due to illiteracy, children is lack of knowledge among them because they do not go to school and consequently it creates and perpetuates poverty that they are experiencing. Parents, who are illiterate and uneducated, do not fully understand the needs of physical, mental and emotional development of their children because they themselves are not exposed to the education. School represents the most important means of drawing children away from the labour market therefore, many insist on immediately abolishing child labour in developing countries and requiring children to go to school (Siddiqi, 2011). As showed in Table 1; surprisingly, child labour is more concentrated in Asia country which means there are more child workers in Asia than anywhere else. According to Dijo (2010), when children doing unnecessary things like job, it did stunt their brain development which makes them remains uneducated and unable to take care their own family when they grows up. This forces one’s to make his...
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