Effects of Analogy Approach in Teaching

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Chapter 1



Many educators view teaching as organized, purposeful and deliberate efforts designed to bring about certain desirable ends in an individual. Garcia (2000) states that a teacher must know what teaching is because his concept of teaching will guide his behaviour and his own interpretation of teaching that becomes essential to his performance as a teacher. It serves as high guide as well as direction in every classroom work to achieve effective teaching-learning process. Teachers responsible for developing scientific and technological skills among students. They play an important role in teaching to be able to achieve maximum and effective learning. However, to be able to facilitate effective learning they need to have an understanding of what is to be taught. It is from this understanding that it becomes imperative that a number of appropriate and effective strategies be carefully considered and applied to meet the needs of the students.

In the emergence of the borderless world, teachers find themselves in the midst of knowledge explosion where learning is no longer confined to one state of an individual’s development. Thus, teachers need to develop the critical thinking skills and analysis so that they can face the very complicated situations, it is imperative that mentors teach students on how to assimilate knowledge that is relevant, prepare students for the bright new world, and help them become masters not of other person but of themselves and their own destinies.

Teaching science concepts require strategies that will encourage students to reflect and use their thinking skills in relation to the knowledge and information learned in science. One of these strategies is the use of analogy, a method wherein the ideas, culture, resources and experience of the learner is used and it has a positive powerful effect when incorporated in the culture of school. It embraces the fundamental notion that not all learners are the same but all learners are able to think creatively. Students makes sense of their environment in different ways and can construct meaning based on their experiences, thus, producing unique interaction with ideas presented by a teacher. The intent of analogy is to create personal meaning to see old ideas in a new way and is able to explore the inherent complexity of ideas in ways that reveal more personal meaning (Lasley/Matczynski; 1997 Background of the Study

Analogy is “…the lifeblood…of human thinking.” (Hofstader) The important role of analogy has been demonstrated by many examples in the history of science. In daily life, we encounter metaphors and analogies very frequently but it appears that they are often misunderstood or discounted. In contrast, analogies are used in science to develop insights into, hypotheses and questions about, and explanations of phenomena that are usually unobservable: they must be understood. In science, two systems are analogous if they agree in the relations between their respective parts (the meaning of “relations” and “parts” below). It has often been asserted that they are fundamental to the development of new ideas.. Moreover, it is inevitable that students will enter our classes with conceptions that conflict to differing extents with our own, if only because science develops so quickly. These differing conceptions of science are interesting “because they reveal a thought process and, by contrast, shed light on some structural features of accepted theory” Analogies provide an opportunity to teach about science as well as teaching science, but they have to be explicitly acknowledged. According to Lawson (1993) "the central goal of science is to develop satisfactory explanations for natural phenomena."  In view of this, The Basic Education of the Grade 5 Cabuyao Central School aims to strengthen more the service instruction in all grade levels. Science students...
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