Effects of Ai on Humanity

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The Effects of Artificial Intelligence on Humanity

Yazan Kioumgi
Informatics Engineering
Fall 2009

Abstract
Artificial intelligence is the science of making the machine act intelligently. AI has been developed gradually until it became a part of our daily lives. There are increasable numbers of AI applications like games, identification, and GPS…etc. However, the top of AI does not become applicable yet. There are positive and negative impacts of AI on humanity. The paper discusses each of these impacts. After that, the paper argues that the future of AI is still ambiguous. And the probable future effects of AI on humanity would be negative, especially on the psychological aspect of the human. The paper concludes with the importance of intelligence in affecting the humanity.

Contents:
1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………….….. 4 2. Historical Background……………………………………………………………….…... 4 3. Developments……………………………………………………………………….…... 4 4. AI Applications…………………………………………………………………….……. 5 5. The effects of AI………………………………………………………………….……... 5 6.1. Advantages……………………………………………………………….…….... 6 6.2. The role of AI in human’s life…………………………………………….…… 6 6.3. The psychological effects of AI………………………………………………….. 7 6.4. The effects of AI on the world…………………………………………………... 7 6.5. The future of AI and its effects on humanity………………………………….…..8 6. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….....................8 References………………………………………………..........................................................9

1. Introduction
Artificial intelligence is a very wide part of computer science. Many scientists tried to define artificial intelligence. According to Nilsson (1998), “AI is concerned with intelligent behavior in artifacts” (p. 6). This definition is still ambiguous, because artifacts themselves are not able to be intelligent. Kurzweil (1990) has argued the concept of artificial intelligence. According to him, AI is the art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people. With this definition, the idea behind artificial intelligence becomes clearer. Anyway the concept of AI is not stable, because it depends on the field that is concerned in it. 2. Historical Background

According to Russel and Norving (2003), the birth of artificial intelligence was in 1956. The most famous name that is usually combined with the beginning of AI is Alan Turing. Turing was a mathematician, born in 1912. He put the first theory about AI. It was called Turing test. Russel and Norving (2003) clarify Turing test in their book, the Turing test that is proposed by Alan Turing in 1950, was designed to simulate the concept of artificial intelligence. Turing suggested a test to be operated on the computer. The computer passes the test if a human does an oral conversation with this computer for a while, and cannot tell whether he was talking with a computer or with a human being. This test was the first mention of AI in history. And it is still unsolved until now. 3. Developments

After Turing test, AI began to grow up as computer science was developing. A scientist named Dermott made the first intelligent system. According to Dermott (1982), the first successful commercial expert system, R1, began operation at the digital equipment corporation in 1978. Later on, the concept of AI became more concrete in computer applications. According to Russel and Norving (2003), AI becomes a science in 1987. And the emergence of intelligent agents was in 1995. One of the most important environments for intelligent agents is the Internet. AI systems have become so common in web-based applications that the “-bot” suffix has entered everyday language. Moreover, AI technologies underlie many Internet tools, such as search engines, recommender systems, and Web site construction systems. In the last five years, wide jumps have been made in the...
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