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Effects of Disease on Human Physiology; Skeletal System

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Effects of Disease on Human Physiology; Skeletal System

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APPENDICES

Normal Healthy Bone: Bone Affected by Osteoporosis

Appendix B

Appendix A

Appendix C

T-SCORE BELOW 0

T-SCORE = 0

T-SCORE ABOVE 0

Bones are less dense than the average younger population

Bones are the same density as the average younger population

Bones are denser than the average younger population

Appendix D

(Tables constructed using information available from Osteoporosis Australia website)

Z-SCORE BELOW 0

Z-SCORE = 0

Z-SCORE ABOVE 0

Bones are below average density for your age/gender.

Bones are average for your age/gender.

Bones are above average density for your age/gender.

Appendix E

EXERCISES, WHICH MAY INCREASE THE RISK OF FRACTURE.

_TYPE OF EXERCISE_

_EXAMPLE_

Dynamic abdominal exercises

Sit ups

Twisting movements

Golf Swings

Trunk flexion

Bending forward

High impact exercise

Jumping