This literature review purpose is to attain a better understanding of effective use of celebrity endorsement as an advertising strategy. The types of sources covered when conducting this research included journals, articles, books and dissertation which relevant to the celebrity endorsement. There are four main parts need to be emphasis, first is the history and background, second is evaluation of three theories model; which consists of TEARS model shows celebrity play an important role in facilitating advertising effectively, The Meaning Transfer Model refers to the description of endorsement process and Elaboration Likelihood Model which deals with circumstances and situation of endorsed product and target audience. Thirdly is consumer behavior affect purchase intention and lastly is review about the negative publicity of endorser.
2. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND
Celebrity endorser refers to a famous person who makes use of his or her recognition through a consumer product by showing it in an advertisement (McCracken, 1989). By definition, a celebrity is a well-known persona such as entertainer, actor, or athlete who is being identified by public for his or her achievements in the areas additional to the product category endorsed (Friedman and Friedman, 1979). Therefore, McCracken’s definition give a clear view about the celebrity endorsement is the activity of utilize celebrity publicity to endorse a product in advertising.
Since late nineteenth century, celebrities were involved in endorsing activities nevertheless, celebrity endorsement had became a standard practice since 1980s (Choi et al., 2005). Historically, British actress Lillie Langtry was the world’s first celebrity endorser when she appeared on Pears Soap package in 1893 (Morin, 2002). The popularity of using celebrity endorsers in America increased from 15 to 25 percent in 1979 to 1997 and these days, more than 20 percent of majority television commercials feature celebrities (Belch and Belch, 2001). Nowadays, famous artists, athletes, models and even dead personalities are used to endorse products (Shimp, 2003). Beyonce Knowles endorsed for L’Oreal, David Beckham for Gillette and Tyra Banks for Victoria Secret; these celebrities have become symbols and role of endorser in today’s advertising (Forbes, 2009).
3. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT MODEL THEORIES
In this section, three model theories related to celebrity endorsement in advertising are demonstrate. 3.1 TEARS MODEL
Figure 1: TEARS MODEL
Source: Shimp, 2003
Shimp (2003) devised this model showing the celebrity play an important role in facilitating advertising effectively. There are five attributes in this model (see Figure 1). The first attribute is Trustworthiness, which refers to believable and dependable. Shimp (2003) claimed that celebrity trustworthiness depends on the consumer’s perception towards endorser’s motivation. The second attribute is Expertise; it is about having certain skills, abilities and knowledge that associated with endorsed product. The way of consumer perceives the endorser is much important because when endorser is perceived as an expert, he or she is able to alter consumer opinion (Shimp, 2003). The third attribute is Attractiveness, this involve endorser characteristics, physical attractiveness, lifestyle and intellectual skills (Shimp, 2003). Consumer may imitate the celebrity they like in reality, so more often the consumer persuasion happens through identification of the endorser attractiveness. For example, tennis player Anna Kournikova, she never won any competition in the tour but through endorsement she earns approximately 10 million dollars per year (Christian and Rikard, 2004). Respect is the fourth attribute in TEARS model, it represents the professional of celebrities in different career are being admired such as their athletic skills, singing talents, acting abilities and...
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