Chap-5 Effective Thinking
A) Criteria for assessing and selecting thinkers:
1. Originality of ideas
2. Impact of ideas
3. Presentation style
4. Written communication
5. Loyalty of followers
6. Business sense
7. International outlook
8. Rigour of research
10. The guru Factor
“I think, therefore I am”
- Rene Descartes
B) Thinking: Meaning & nature
• We exist because we think. Prominent sign of a human life is thinking. Whether awake or asleep we are thinking consciously or unconsciously. • Thinking is a mental processing of information. It can take many forms like daydreaming, fantasizing, reasoning and problem solving. • It is an internal mental process that uses data or information as input, integrates that information into previous learned material and the end results in either knowledge or nothing. • It may voluntarily or involuntarily. An individual may not keeping thinking all the time, there are moments when deliberately ideas keep flowing in his mind or subconsciously he things about certain happening or event. • Conscious or voluntary thinking may result into voluntary or deliberate action. But involuntary thinking may not result into action. • Cultural, biological and environmental experiences mould an individuals thinking pattern. It also helps an individual adapt to his social and physical environment. • Just thinks is not sufficient mere thinking gives no results well organized thinking is required. An individual needs to systematically train his brain to achieve the required result. Systematic thinking acts like a filter.
C) Thinking styles:
• A style is the way an individual thinks. It is not ability but a preferred way of using the ability one has. • According to American Psychologist Robert Sternberg
Human mind functions in a way that is similar to the government. Governments are mere extension of individuals. Just like governments have different functions, forms, levels, orientation and leaning so does the mind.
“What happens to us in life depends not just on how well we think but also on how we think…………Understanding thinking styles can help people better understand why some activities fit them and others don’t, and even why some people fit them and others don’t. ”
Sternberg believed that people acquire their thinking styles through socialization. However, it is also possible to learn and teach styles of thinking.
Sternberg’s conceptions of thinking are based on following hypotheses: 1. Thinking styles are preferences in the use of abilities and not abilities themselves i.e. it is the pattern of thinking one accepts to express his thinking and not an ability. 2. A match between thinking styles and abilities creates a synergy i.e. a combine effort for expected outcome / result. 3. Life choice we make should fit styles as well as ability i.e. the way of thinking should be compatible to way of life. 4. People have profiles of styles, not just single styles 5. Style varies across task, situations as well as life span. 6. People differ in strength of their preferences and in their stylistic flexibility i.e. People have different strength in thinking according to their preferred area and its adaptability to situation also differs. 7. Styles of thinking are socialized, measurable and teachable. 8. Value of styles may change i.e. valued at one time or in one place may not be the same everytime. 9. Styles are not good or bad-it’s a question of suitability.
Sternberg believed that thinking styles are as important to the quality of people’s work and to work enjoyment as abilities are. The more flexible people are, the better they can adjust to a variety of situations. Understanding of thinking styles is important because it will help people perceive: 1. Which...
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