Effect of Temperature on Germinating Seeds and Brine Shrimp

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DATE : 13th OCTOBER 2009

EXPERIMENT ON EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF GERMINATING SEEDS AND BRINE SHRIMPS. Aim: to investigate the effect of difference in temperature on the growth of germinating seeds and hatching of brine shrimps eggs. Introduction:

Growth is the process by which a plant increases in the number and size of leaves and stems. The growth of both plants and animals requires energy. Animals get their energy by digesting the plants they eat. Plants get their energy from the sun through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process where the green pigment in the plant's leaf (chlorophyll) absorbs energy from sunlight and, using this energy, water, and carbon dioxide, produces oxygen and simple sugars. The plant then uses these sugars to make more complex sugars and starches for storage as energy reserves, to make cellulose and hemicellulose for cell walls or with nitrogen, to make proteins. How the plant uses its energy depends on the developmental stage of the plant and on environmental conditions. Brine shrimp which is also called as artemia do not live in the oceans.  They inhabit inland salt lakes. When the salinity in these lakes is high, the artemia lay a cyst (a dormant egg enclosed by a hard shell called the Chorion) rather than an egg, these cysts can lay dormant on the sides of the lake until the salinity reaches a desirable level for hatching. They can remain dormant for many years. From there at about the 24 hour mark, they have developed two appendages (swimming legs), antennae and an eye spot and are ready to be harvested. They are now called Instar I nauplii. They have no mouth or anus as they are still developing.  At this stage they have a egg yolk reserve to aid them through the next stage of development.  This makes them highly nutritious for some fish fry. They can not be enriched or gut loaded at this stage because they are not developed enough to eat.  They also have no mouth or anus. Day 2 (approx 12 hours later) they begin to molt into the second larval stage called Instar II nauplii, they have a mouth and anus and a immature digestive tract. During the next 15-30 days they molt and grow new appendages (swimming legs) with each molt, until they have reached adult stage. The males can be clearly recognised now by their graspers, which are modified antennae near the head, while females should be starting to show a egg pouch near the tail. They will be an average size of about 8-10mm.  Adults can live up to four months if kept in optimum keeping conditions.  If kept at low salinities (30-35 ppt) females can produce free-swimming nauplii (baby brine shrimp), in preference to the dormant cysts. Artemia develop rapidly, with maturation coming slightly over one week after hatching of the nauplius larva. While producing eggs under favorable conditions, some species or strains are viviparious (live birth) and some may reproduce via parthenogenesis. Brine shrimp eggs are metabolically inactive and can remain in total stasis for several years while in a dry, oxygen-free environment, even at temperatures below freezing. This characteristic is called cryptobiosis meaning "hidden life" (also called diapause). Once placed in water, the cyst-like eggs hatch within a few hours, and will grow to a mature length of around one centimeter on average. The nauplii, or larvae, of brine shrimp are less than 0.5 millimeters when they first hatch. They eat micro-algae, but will also eat yeast, wheat flour, soybean powder, or egg yolk (Schumann 1995). Hypothesis: The seeds grown in room temperature have the highest length of plumule and radical. There is more brine shrimps egg hatched when they are grown in the incubator. The temperature of the room temperature is the optimum temperature for plants and animals to grow. Variable:

Manipulated: Temperature...
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