Effect of Teamwork on Employee Performance

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
In this era of increased competition, leaders recognize the importance of teamwork more than ever before. Teams can expand the outputs of individuals through collaboration. Employees who are working in teams become the standard for the organization (Alie, Beam & Carey, 1998, Journal of Management Education, 707-719.). It is the means of improving man-power utilization and potentially raising performance of the individual. With a support from upper level management, employees work confidently in teams and increase productivity of the organization. In the new business world, managers are assigning more team projects to employees to enable them strengthen their knowledge and develop their skills (Hartenian, 2003, Journal of Team Performance Management, 23-30). Recent study shows that employee working within the team can produce more output as compared to individual (Jones, Richard, Paul, Sloane & Peter, 2007, Journal of Management, 35-37). The purpose or objectives of this study are as to find out the effect of teamwork, esprit de corps (team spirit), team trust, recognition and rewards on employee performance and also to find out the relationship between employee teamwork and employee performance. Various other measures of employee performance are also included in the research study, which are esprit de corps (team spirit), team trust, and recognition & rewards.

2.1Teamwork and Employee Performance
According to Cohen and Bailey (1999) “an employee team is a collection of individuals who are interdependent in the tasks and who share responsibility for the outcomes”. (Journal of Management, 239-290). Teams enable people to cooperate, enhance individual skills and provide constructive feedback without any conflict between individuals. Teamwork is an important factor for smooth functioning of an organization. Most of the organizational activities become complex due to advancement in technology, therefore teamwork is a major focus of many organizations. One research study concluded that teamwork is necessary for all types of organization including non-profit organizations (Pfaff & Huddleston, 2003). Team members enhance the skills, knowledge and abilities while working in teams. Organizations which emphasize more on teams have results in increased employee performance, greater productivity and better problem solving at work (Cohen & Bailey, 1999). One research study concluded that to teach individuals on how to work in teams is not an easy task because to teach individuals regarding to work in teams is inappropriate (Crosby, 1991). These factors enhance the communication as well as interpersonal relationship between team members and also boost the employee performances. Teamwork is a significant tool of new type of work organization. “Teamwork is a precise organizational measure that shows many different features in all type of organizations including non-profit” (Mulika, 2010). A research study by Ingram , 2000 (Journal of Team Performance Management, 5-10) concluded that the good manager is the one who assigns the responsibilities to his/her employee in a form of group or team in order to take maximum output from employees . A study by Washer, 2006 concluded that it should be possible to design a system of team building within every organization for employees in order to promote and distribute best practice and maximize output. The main emphasis for designing and implementing such a system is ultimately to improve employee learning (Washer, 2006, Journal of Quality Assurance in Education, 243-250). According to Ingram (2000)” teamwork is a strategy that has a potential to improve the performance of individuals and organizations, but it needs to be nurtured over time”. Organizations need to look at strategies for improving performance in the light of increasingly competitive environments. Top managers need to have the vision to introduce teamwork activities within the...
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