Effect of Corporal and Non-Corporal Punishment on Academic Achievement of Elementary School Children with Reference to Gender and Board of Education
S.V.Sindhu and Mahjabeen
The present investigation attempts to study the effect of corporal and non-corporal punishment on academic achievement of elementary school children with reference to gender and Board of education. A random sample of 180 elementary school children belonging to the age group of 10 years, both boys and girls hailing from CBSE, Matriculation, State Board schools were taken for the present study. A questionnaire was employed to collect the required data from the children. The questionnaire consists of two parts. The first part of the questionnaire starts by listing direct beating of the student by the teacher. The second part lists the In-direct punishments, which enumerates non-corporal punishments. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using mean, standard deviation, student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation coefficient. The result indicated that punishment does not have any effect on academic achievement of CBSE and Matriculation school children, whereas, punishment has a positive effect on academic achievement of State Board school children.
Discipline is an organized, regulated, orderly way of life. It helps to direct the child’s energies into useful and socially acceptable channels. Discipline is also society’s way of teaching the child moral concepts and behaviour approved by the group. Every child needs to be helped to understand the values of discipline through appropriate experiences. He must learn to confirm to the expected patterns of behaviour and customs in an acceptable manner, use freedom wisely and distinguish between ‘safe’ and ‘unsafe’ actions. The ultimate goal of discipline is self-discipline.1
The authors can be contacted at J.B.A.S College for Women, Teynampet, Chennai-18. Discipline is defined as a mental and moral training, obedience to rules, correction and/or chastisement.2
Techniques, which are used to inculcate discipline, are of three broad categories: authoritarian, democratic and permissive. In autocratic pattern the teacher is the boss, gives the orders and sees that they are obeyed. In this situation a child feels frustrated and often shows hostile behaviour.3
Under the democratic system members of the group have a share in determining the disciplinary policies and controls within the group. In a democratic, cooperative atmosphere the students are not under the pressures that bring on anxiety and fear. Therefore they are friendly and conscious of group needs and welfare.4
In permissive pattern the group or members of the group are primarily responsible for determining the controls and for self-enforcement of the controls. There are teachers who through mistaken ideas of what democratic discipline involves do let their students take too much responsibility in establishing controls.
The term punishment comes from a Latin root meaning "penalty" and "pain." Punishments are one factor in schools, efforts to maintain discipline though to administer a punishment means that all else has failed.5
Punishment is defined as any event, which reduces the frequency of the behaviour, which preceded the occurrence of that event and has thus been used to modify the occurrence of undesirable behaviour.6
Punishment can be classified into two main categories: Corporal punishment and Non-corporal punishment. Corporal punishment is the intentional infliction of physical pain as a method of changing behavior. It may include methods such as hitting, slapping, punching, kicking, pinching, shaking, use of various objects (paddles, belts, sticks, or others), or painful body postures. Non-corporal punishment may include: Verbal punishment - Using cruel words, shaming, ridiculing; Withholding rewards - You can't watch TV if you don't do your homework; Penalties - You broke...
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