Department of Fish Biology and Ecology, Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Abbassa, Abo-Hammad, Sharqia 44662, Egypt.
* Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ground roasted coffee (Coffee Arabica; GRC) as a natural feed additive in practical fish diets and its impact on growth, feed utilization, biochemical variables, and body composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Ground roasted coffee was added to the ingredients of tested diets to represent 0.0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 5.0 g/kg diet. Fish (1.9 ± 0.03 g) were distributed to various treatments at a rate of 20 fish per 80-L aquarium and fed one of the experimental diets for 10 weeks. No growth-promoting influences of GRC were observed; however, the optimum fish growth and feed utilization were obtained at 0.0 – 1.0 g GRC/kg diet. The inclusion of GRC in fish diet over 1.0 g/kg diet reduced fish growth, feed consumption, and the protein contents in fish body. The highest lipids and ash contents were obtained at 5.0 g GRC/kg diet. Glucose, plasma protein, and plasma lipids decreased significantly, meanwhile aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and creatinine increased significantly in fish fed 5.0 g GRC/kg diet. Fish survival (93.3 – 97.8%) was not affect by GRC inclusion in fish diets. These results indicate that GRC supplement is not a promising growth stimulant for Nile tilapia.
Keywords: Nile tilapia, ground roasted coffee, Coffee Arabica, fish growth, feed utilization, body composition, biochemical variables, fish health.
Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) is one of the most popular species in Egypt and worldwide (El-Sayed, 2006). As the regular use of antibiotics and chemicals as preventative and curative measures for disease leads to drug-resistant bacteria and harmful effects on the environment (Teuber, 2001; Bachère, 2003; Hermann et al., 2003), alternatives to antibiotics and chemicals to improve the quality and sustainability of aquaculture production have been seen as desirable (Meunpol et al., 2003; Vaseeharan and Ramasamy, 2003; Li et al., 2006).
Medicinal plants have been used as immune-stimulants for human in China and old civilization for thousands years (Tan and Vanitha, 2004). These plants contain many types of active components such as polysaccharides, alkaloids, or flavonoids that have immuno-stimulating activities in mice, chickens, or human cell lines (Cao and Lin, 2003; Lin and Zhang, 2004). The use of medicinal plants as immuno-stimulants in fish diets has been considered (Abdel-Tawwab et al., 2010; Ahmad and Abdel-Tawwab 2011; Ahmad et al.; in press).
Many studies have been conducted on using coffee pulp in fish diets and they found adverse effects of coffee pulp on fish growth and feed utilization (Fagbenro and Arowosoge, 1991; Moreau et al., 2003; Ulloa and Verreth, 2003; Chatzifotis et al., 2008). Some other studies reported that coffee shows an antioxidant activity because it contains many substances like caffeine, cafestol, kahweol, and chlorogenic acids (Pellegrini et al., 2003; Vinson et al., 2005). Due to the abundance of antioxidant compounds in coffee, these agents must be seriously considered when elucidating potential pharmacological effects of coffee intake. Therefore, the present research aims to evaluate the effect of ground roasted coffee (GRC) supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, feed consumption, biochemical variables, and proximate composition of Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fish culture and feeding regime - Ground roasted coffee (Coffee Arabica; GRC) was obtained from the local market. Five different diets containing 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and...