Edwards Personal Preference Schedule

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Introduction
EDWARDS PERSONAL PREFERENCE SCHEDULE
A personality inventory comprising 225 pairs of statements relating to likes and preferences the respondent being required to choose the preferred alternative in each case. The scale is ipsative, and it yields scores on 15 needs based on the theory of personality introduced by the US psychologist Henry Alexander Murray (1893–1988) in his book Explorations in Personality (1938), namely needs for achievement, deference, order, exhibition, autonomy, affiliation, intraception, succourance, dominance, abasement, nurturance, change, endurance, homosexuality, and aggression. On an ipsative measure, the overall score-average across all subtests- is always the same for every examinee. On an ipsative scale, high scores are relative, not absolute. In other words the strength of each need is expressed not absolutely but relative to the strength of examinee’s other needs. According to Edward the EPPS is not actually a test in strictest sense of the word because there are no right and wrong answers. EPPS is that pair of statements in each item is matched for social desirability. Because each statement in an item pair is of equal social desirability, the content of each statement will exert more “pull” in determining the examinees choice. Test Consistency

As a further check on the validity of EPPS results, Edwards included a consistency scale with 15 pairs of statement repeated in identical form. In other words, the 210 pairs of statements, only 195 are unique. The 15 that occur twice are presented more or less randomly throughout the test. With this format the number of times a subject make the identical choice can be converted to a percentile based on a normative data. Inventories consisted of 225 pairs of statements in which items from each of the 15 scales paired with other items from the 14 plus pairs of twelve other items to check consistency optional. This leaves the number of items (14x15) at 210. Edwards has used 15 items last to offer candidates the same item twice, using the results to calculate the score of consistency. The results will be considered valid if the consistency checks for more than 9 out of 15 items couples.

The 15 Personality Variable Scales
On the EPPS there are nine statements used for each scale. Social Desirability ratings have been done for each item, and the pairing of items attempts to match items of approximately equal social desirability. Fifteen pairs of items are repeated twice for the consistency scale. 1. Achievement (ach): This scale was designed to measure one’s need to accomplish tasks well, to do best, to be successful, to accomplish something of great significance, to solve different problems and puzzles, to write a great novel or play. 2. Deference (def): This scale identifies one’s need to conform to customs and defer to others, to get suggestions from others, to find out what others think, to follow instructions, to read about great men, to avoid unconventional and to let others to make decisions. 3. Order (ord): This scale measures one’s need to plan well and be organized, to have written neat and organized, to make advance plans when taking a trip, to organize details of work, and a definite time for eating. 4. Exhibition (exh): This scale was designed to measure one’s need to be the center of attention in a group, to say witty and clear things, to tell amusing jokes and stories, to talk about personal adventures and experiences, and to ask questions other cannot answer. 5. Autonomy (aut): This scale used to measure one’s need to be free of responsibilities and obligations, to be able to come and go as desired, to be independent of others in making decisions, to do things which are unconventional, and to criticize those in position of authority. 6. Affiliation (aff): This scale identifies one’s need to form strong friendships and attachments, to be loyal to friends, to participate in friendly groups, to do things...
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