Planning can be defined as “a process of taking decisions for future actions in order to achieve pre-determined objectives by optimum utilization of available resources in a limited time frame”. Thus a pre-condition for planning is the existence of certain objectives which need to be achieved and constraints in this respect are time and resources. Here resources include all the three types of resources namely physical(or material), financial and human resources. It is said that we plan because we have limited resources and we have to achieve our objectives within the constraint of these limited resources. The term “planning” is very frequently used in daily life and every person without exception does some planning at individual level when one has to accomplish some task. Households plan for meeting the requirements of the family within the income available and thus plan for monthly expenditure. When planning is undertaken at the individual or household level decision for future actions are taken by individuals. However, if planning is to be undertaken for a system e.g. planning for education, the important issues to be addressed are : who (and at what level) will decide about the goals, objectives, allocation of resources and time frame which are important and essential components of planning. At the systems level these decisions are taken at various hierarchical units. This concept of availability of various hierarchical units for planning is called the multi-level planning framework. It means the existence of hierarchy of levels of planning with clearly defined territorial jurisdiction. Under this framework planning is possible at national, state (provincial),district, sub-district and village level. However in India planning particularly in the field of education is carried out at the national, state and in a limited way at the district level only. In the field of education in any country there can be a possibility of developing plans at various levels. Specifically in the big countries and even in medium sized countries the planning is undertaken at more than one level, that is, at various hierarchical administrative units. In many countries the hierarchical units available for planning are national, provincial, district, sub-district and village levels. It may therefore be noted that planning for education can possibly be undertaken at these levels. Undertaking the planning at lower levels along with the higher units is refereed to as decentralized planning. However, if we consider the methodology of planning for education it may be made clear that the methodology or the steps involved in planning remain the same whether plans are formulated at higher level or at the lower level. In order plan for education there are certain steps that are involved. These are as follows.
➢ Diagnosis of the Educational Situation·
➢ Target Setting·
➢ Intervention Strategies and Activities·
➢ Costing and Budget Preparation·
➢ Implementation and Monitoring Mechanism·
➢ Negotiations, Appraisal and Approval
Diagnosis of Educational Situation
The first step in developing a plan for education is to diagnose the educational situation. A diagnosis of the education system is an important and initial step towards developing plan. Diagnosis forms an important step in understanding the system itself. Diagnosis in planning is a process of making a realistic assessment regarding what and how much has already been achieved till now. Diagnosis in the context of educational planning is an effort to make a fair assessment of achievements and constraints. It is very likely that what is achieved may be less than what was expected as per the targets set in the earlier plan. There may be various reasons for this under achievement. The diagnosis exercise attempts to identify these constraints so that they are removed while implementing the next plan. It may also be found that sometimes...
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