This discussion looks into education planning by explaining how forces of stability and change have impacted education planning. It expounds on the role of education planning. It explains what is involved in goal setting and gives the importance of goal setting in education planning.
Table of Contents
1.0 Education Planning4
1.1 Need for Change4
1.2 Conflicting Forces of Stability and Change5
2.0 Role of Education Planning6
2.1 Defining Goals and Objectives7
2.2 Analysis of the existing situation8
2.3 Generating Systems and Policies9
3.0 Goal Setting9
3.1 Clarity & Challenge9
3.4 Task Complexity11
4.0 Importance of Goal setting in Education Planning12
4.1 Clarity and Motivation12
4.2 Maintaining Focus13
1.0 Education Planning
The provision of educational and training opportunities has been a standing objective of the Government of Kenya since independence in 1963. Education has been considered by different stakeholders in the country as an important vehicle for socio-economic and political development (Kiungu, 2000). Education has been seen as a fundamental strategy for human capital development and a crucial vehicle for enhancing the quality of life. However, as Kenya approaches the 21st century, the county is faced with new challenges of meeting the public demand for education and training both as a human right and as an essential investment in the strive to attain the status of a newly industrialized country. These challenges point to the need for the education sector to rise up to change brought about by new developments in the educational sector.
1.1 Need for Change
"Change is inevitable. Change is constant” (Disraeli, 1804-1881). Change is related to growth. If you do not change, you do not see, hear, feel, know or go toward anything more than what you are now. The game with change, is trying to manage the trends inherent in change. The educational system and environment in Kenya has been subjected to a barrage of change that has manifested itself in various developments (IPAR, 2008). Nearly 73 per cent of the government’s social sector spending and 40 per cent of the national recurrent expenditure goes to education. Additionally, households spend between 5 and 7 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on education (Republic of Kenya, 2007)
Access, equity, curriculum relevance and quality challenges have characterized Kenya’s education system over the years. Despite efforts by various stakeholders, including the government, to minimize the negative effects of these factors, the internal and external efficiency of the education sector are questionable. A number of ‘Commissions’ and ‘Ministerial Task Forces’ have been detailed to review education sector policies. Examples include, those chaired by Simon Ominde, Peter Gachathi, C.B. Mackay, James Kamunge, and Davy Koech. There have also been innumerable Task Forces, among other efforts to bring about change in the education sector.
1.2 Conflicting Forces of Stability and Change
Organizations seek flexibility so that they can quickly adapt to environmental challenges, explore new ideas, processes and reduce costs. At the same time there are various forces that promote stability. Stability is sought because of the wish to reduce uncertainty and maintain consistency of actions. Some level of tension exists in an organizations pursuit of both stability and change (Leana & Bruce, 2000).
In the governments effort to provide Education for all, self defeating disparities have occurred due to lack of careful projecting, scheduling and programming of the flow of components e.g. teachers, books, classrooms and equipment. For example, in the case of school buildings and pupil enrolment taking priority while teacher training and textbook supply taking...