Table of Contents
2. 2. Educating girls in Bangladesh
2.1 Approaches to increase girls’ access to education
2.1.1 The girls’ stipend program
2.1.2 Food-For-Education programs
2.2 Enhancing the Quality of basic Education in Bangladesh
3. Education girls in Mali
3.1 Approaches to increase girls’ access to education
3, 1, 1 The Animatrices Model
3.1.2 The Success of the Animatrice Model
3.2 Enhancing the quality of basic education in Mali
3.2.1 Curriculum reforms
4. Comparison between approaches of Bangladesh and Mali
2. Educating girls in Bangladesh
Janet Raynor explored the Female Stipend Programme (FSP) whilst working in education over 12 years in Bangladesh. Her study reviewed attitude towards girl’s education and learned girls and women in Bangladesh The Researcher started her paper by quoting an old Bengali adage ‘caring for a daughter is like watering a neighbour‘s tree’. The author used this to imply that in Bangladesh it is seen to be unprofitable to spend scarce resources in educating a daughter because the main beneficiary is the husband. She explained that this was one of the excuses, families used to justify the exclusion of girls from Education in Bangladesh. Janet Raynor however noted that, various approaches have been used to promote girls access to education.
3.1 Approaches to increase girls’ access to education The Researcher referred to the ‘Wood’s Education Despatch’ of 1954, the first formal document campaigning for official schooling for girls in Bangladesh. In this paper, the main aim for promoting girls education was that it enhanced lifestyle and moral outlook to life. Janet also explored the work of Chanana who noted that the education of girls focused on successful motherhood (Chanana 1994). The 1974 Qudrat-e- Khuda Education Commission Report of Bangladesh reinforce the main focus for girls education to be promoting domestic life, stressing subjects such as food and nutrition, child care, nursing of the sick. The Researcher noted that in 1982, the Government of Bangladesh planned to improve girls’ education nationally. This idea originated from exploding population growth. Research showed that the Secondary Education of girls will lead to late marriages, increase use of contraceptive, delay fertility levels and in the long term, have a positive effect on population growth. This conception led to the birth of the Female stipend programme and Food for education Programme. This paper will look at the Food –For-Education Programme and the Female Stipend Programme (FSP). The emphasis will be on the FSP. 3.2.1 The Female Stipend Programme
Janet explained that the FSP was organised in a simple way, any girl in year 6- 10 (which is around the ages of 11 – 15 in the UK education system), receives a monthly allowance of $1 to pay for text book, uniforms and stationery costs. This payment was made on condition that girls attended 75% of all lessons and achieved 45% in the exams grade, and remained unmarried until they left Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination in Year 10. The school is paid US$ 1.50–2.00 Semester in tuition fees, irrespective of their economic standing. There has been pressure from donors for a means tested system.
I think a means tested system will ensure that limited resources are deployed to families who need it most. On the other hand, trying to implement a means tested system may be complicated and expensive. How will one check the wealth of families who are not employed in the formal sector?. How much do they earn?, especially if they are not ready to declare it. Another question is, will wealthy families who do not get the allowance be prepared to invest in their daughter’s education? A means tested system will deprive some of the girls from getting educated. It is worth mention but...