Education in Pakistan

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13.CENTRAL ISSUES AND PROBLEMS IN PAKISTAN EDUCATION SYSTEM AND THEIR NEEDED REFORMS:

The existing education delivery system is not meeting the needs and aspirations of the society as such particularly, it is a challenge to the provinces and districts for the 21st century. Moreover, prior to devolution, the policy and planning have been undertaken by the central and provincial governments without taking into account the ground realities and without the participation of community. The main objectives of the devolution plan is to empower the community at the grassroots level in planning, management, resource mobilization and utilization, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the education system to improve the service delivery at that level. The main inherent issues of education systems are: * teachers absenteeism,

* high drop out rates particularly at primary level,
* high repetition rates,
* low completion rates,
* inequalities by gender,
* location and social groups,
* low literacy rate and
* unsatisfactory performance of schools,

these issues have been addressed under DOP through empowerment of local communities.

The present government has initiated political and administrative devolution under its reforms agenda under Local Government Plan 2000. The Local Government Ordinance was promulgated on 14th August 2001. Under devolution, political power, decision-making authority, and administrative responsibilities have been moved as closes as possible to the village, union council, tehsil and district levels, with only the major policy-making, coordination, and special service functions being retained with the central and provincial governments. The main purpose of the devolution is to improve the service delivery at the grass root level in various sectors.

It is believed that highly centralized system of education is greatly hampering the efficiency and effectiveness of delivery service at the grass-root level. Successive governments addressed this problem in their policies and plans since 1947.

The present government has envisioned with a clear commitment to reform a number of aspects of education system framed within the 1998-2010 National Education Policy and ten year perspective development plan 2001-2011 to increase educational opportunities for all children, to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of delivery service at grass root level. ESR is an Action Plan for 2001-2005, has been fully integrated into the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and about 80% of the ESR packages covers adult literacy, Education for All and technical education. Devolution plan is the mainframe for implementation of ESR. The education sector reforms (ESRs) have been design to address the following areas of education system:

1. Comprehensive literacy and poverty reduction program.

2. Expansion of primary elementary education.

3. Introduction of technical stream at the secondary level.

4. Improving the quality of education through teacher training.

5. Higher education sector reforms.

6. Public-private partnership.

7. Innovative programs.

Policies and Goals of Education System in Pakistan:

Since independence, attempts have been made to relate the education system to the needs and inspirations of the country. All Education Conference was held in 1947 as per directives of the founder of Pakistan Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He provided the basic guidelines for the future development of education by emphasizing interalia, that the education system should suit the genius of our people, consonant with our history, culture and instill the highest sense of honor, integrity, responsibility, and selfless service to the nation. It should also provide scientific and technical knowledge to build up our economic life. This was followed by the appointment of various commissions, which submitted their reports periodically. The 1959 Report of the...
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