Education in India

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Education in India has a history stretching back to the ancient urban centres of learning at Taxila and Nalanda. Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj. Education in India falls under the control of both the Union Government and the states, with some responsibilities lying with the Union and the states having autonomy for others. The various articles of the Indian Constitution provide for education as a fundamental right. Most universities in India are Union or State Government controlled.

India has made a huge progress in terms of increasing primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately two thirds of the population.[2] India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to the economic rise of India.[3] Much of the progress in education has been credited to various private institutions.[4] The private education market in India is estimated to be worth $40 billion in 2008 and will increase to $68 billion by 2012.[4] However, India continues to face challenges. Despite growing investment in education, 35% of the population is illiterate and only 15% of the students reach high school.[5] As of 2008, India's post-secondary high schools offer only enough seats for 7% of India's college-age population, 25% of teaching positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors lack either a master's or PhD degree.[6] As of 2007, there are 1522 degree-granting engineering colleges in India with an annual student intake of 582,000,[7] plus 1,244 polytechnics with an annual intake of 265,000. However, these institutions face shortage of faculty and concerns have been raised over the quality of education.[8]

Three Indian universities were listed in the Times Higher Education list of the world’s top 200 universities — Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management, and Jawaharlal Nehru University in 2005 and 2006.[9] Six Indian Institutes of Technology and the Birla Institute of Technology and Science - Pilani were listed among the top 20 science and technology schools in Asia by Asiaweek.[10] The Indian School of Business situated in Hyderabad was ranked number 12 in global MBA rankings by the Financial Times of London in 2010[11] while the All India Institute of Medical Sciences has been recognized as a global leader in medical research and treatment.[12]Contents [hide] 1 History

2 Overview
2.1 Primary education
2.2 Secondary education
2.3 Tertiary education
2.4 Technical education
3 Literacy
4 Attainment
5 Private education
6 Women's Education
7 Rural education
8 Issues
9 Initiatives
10 Central government involvement
10.1 Budget
10.2 Public Expenditure on Education in India
10.3 Legislative framework
11 Notes
12 References
13 External links

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History

Monastic orders of education under the supervision of a guru was a favored form of education for the nobility in ancient India.[13] The knowledge in these orders was often related to the tasks a section of the society had to perform.[14] The priest class, the Brahmins, were imparted knowledge of religion, philosophy, and other ancillary branches while the warrior class, the Kshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare.[14] The business class, the Vaishya, were taught their trade and the lowest class of the Shudras was generally deprived of educational advantages.[14] The book of laws, the Manusmriti, and the treatise on statecraft the Arthashastra were among the influential works of this era which reflect the outlook and understanding of the world at the time.[14]

Apart from the monastic orders, institutions of higher learning and universities flourished in India well before the common era, and continued to deliver education into the common era.[15] Secular Buddhist institutions cropped up along with monasteries.[14] These institutions imparted practical education, e.g. medicine.[14] A number of...
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