REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter present all the references which were thoroughly reviewed and incorporated in this research paper. Both local and foreign documents pertinent to the completion of this chapter had been included to substantiate contents and relevance of this paper.
The key factor in any teaching-learning situation is the teacher. Personal qualities, although difficult to isolate from professional qualities, relate to teachers personality, interest, attitudes, beliefs, and working relationship with pupils and other individuals. Essential traits and abilities may be grouped into two categories: Professional qualities and Personal qualities. These professional qualities are mastery of the subject, understanding of the learner, understanding of teaching principles, skill in the use of techniques for their implementation, general understanding of other branches of knowledge, and understanding and appreciation of the teaching profession. He also pointed the environment, the mainly learners involvement will thoroughly affect its learning and development. Lardizabal et al., (1991) In essay, this year’s most outstanding teachers were awarded be the Metro bank foundation. They were vetted from a choice of hundreds of nominees sent from all over our country. (Sar, 2011). There is one thing these awardees had in common; they have love for their students, they were outstanding also from being innovative and creative in the use of techniques and teaching methods to make sure their students not only pay attention but learn much than otherwise.
In a study of 850 undergraduate physics students done at the University of British Columbia, groups of students were divided into lecture sections and experimental sections. The experimental learning format consisted of group work, problem solving, and discussion while the actual memorization was self-taught as homework. At the end of the week, the students were given a voluntary test. The New York Times reports that the individuals in the non-traditional group were taught by teaching assistants and the traditional group was taught by the usual lectures. Both the New York Times and the Economist are quick to point out that the study may not be perfect. The disparity is “biggest performance boost ever documented in educational research.” One criticism is that the students in the non-traditional group may simply have responded to the novel approach. I for one would like to see the day when problem solving teaching is the norm so that we could test this criticism. (Burke, 2011) “Every teacher has the responsibility of determining how best to approach the members of the class in order to make appeals that will be lasting.” David O. McKay, Gospel Ideals (1953), 439 Learner-centered teaching focuses on the student and, in particular, on the student’s cognitive development and advancing conceptualization to ever more sophisticated schema. The teacher’s role in learner-centered instruction is in helping students grasp the development of knowledge as a process rather than focus on the products of knowledge (ie. facts). The rallying point of classroom activities and assignments in learner-centered classrooms is in each of the student’s own experience and the process of inquiry itself, not on the products of inquiry. As students create their own conceptual and cognitive models, the content, teaching style, and methods instructors (facilitators) use are continually adapted to best aid the cognitive and intellectual progress of the students. Learner or student-centered teaching combines an information processing approach with other factors that affect learning such as attitudes, values, beliefs, and motivation (Bransford, et.al, 1999). Teaching is a complex multifaceted reality, often requiring instructor to jungle multiple tasks and goals flexibly. In...
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