Vol. 1. No. 2. May 2012
ASIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES
ISSUES AND CONCERNS OF PHILIPPINE EDUCATION THROUGH THE YEARS Joel M. Durban1, Ruby Durban Catalan2
Far Eastern University, Manila, 2University of San Agustin Iloilo City, PHILIPPINES firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
The essay is an attempt to analyze, evaluate and criticize issues affecting the educational system through the years with the end view of recommending possible improvements. The metamorphosis of Philippine education through the years was a gradual process brought about by generations of colonialism and imperialism. From the Spaniards to the Americans, to the Japanese even during the Liberation period up to the EDSA revolution, changes in education did not match the high hopes of the Filipino people. Presently, the Philippine educational system needs to address issues not only of accessibility and quality in providing education for all. Other issues needs to addressed involved the role of education in the national development, the unresponsive curriculum, improper monitoring of programs implemented, globalization of education and even politics in education. For the Philippine education to succeed its ills and problems must be addressed. There is a need for values reorientation of the Filipinos as a key to national development. Teachers’ transformation, in terms of their values orientation is necessary. Part of the teachers’ transformation must include their upgrading or updating for professional and personal development. Hence, government support and intervention, along this line is very much needed. As these very same ills and problems have been hounding the country for the last several decades, failure to do so will only compound these problems in the coming years. Keywords: colonialism, imperialism, educational system, globalization
INTRODUCTION Philippine Education is a product of long history of struggle. Its metamorphosis was a gradual process which was a product of generations of colonialism and imperialism. The Spaniards were for sometimes, successful in making the natives illiterate and uneducated. From the coming of Legazpi in 1570 to 1762, the natives were contented to be vassals of Spain. The Spaniards triumphed in using religion to make the people submissive and unquestioning. The people blindly obeyed their foreign masters with the hope of salvation in the afterlife. The Spanish policy focused on treating the natives as a ward; hence, there is no need for them to be educated. This policy offered no opportunity for the Indios (as what the Spaniards call the Filipinos during that time) to improve their lot in the colonial society. However, the second phase of Spanish colonization, from 1762 – 1896 was a period of awakening. It marked the start of the realization, the dawn of critical queries and, ultimately, of revolution. The global changes during that time, like the opening of Suez Canal, the French Revolution, the opening of the Philippines to world trade and commerce, among others, provided www.ajssh.leena-luna.co.jp
61 | P a g e Leena and Luna International, Oyama, Japan.
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Vol. 1. No. 2. May 2012
opportunity for the illustrados (the educated class during the Spanish period) to send their children to school, even in Europe. History tells us that education during the Spanish colonization was selective. It was more of a privilege than a right. Educational opportunities were so limited that learning became the possession of a chosen few. Only the illustrados, the likes of Jose Rizal, the Luna brothers, the Pardo de Taveras and others, availed of it, even with harsh treatment and discrimination from their Spanish contemporaries. Learning, therefore, became a badge of privilege. There was a wide gap between the illustrados and the masses. Even if the...