Education and Militancy in Pakistan

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CENTER FOR UNIVERSAL EDUCATION WORKING PAPER 2 | JUNE 2010

Center for

Universal Education
at BROOKINGS

BEYOND MADRASAS
ASSESSING THE LINKS BETWEEN EDUCATION AND MILITANCY IN PAKISTAN Rebecca Winthrop Corinne Graff

Center for

Universal Education
at BROOKINGS

Rebecca Winthrop is a Fellow and Co-Director of the Center for Universal Education at Brookings. Corinne Graff is a Fellow in the Center for Universal Education at Brookings.

Acknowledgments: We would like to thank Kate Anderson Simons, Mohammad Mohsin Ali and Erum Haider, who provided excellent research assistance, for their tireless efforts. Special thanks also go to: Anda Adams, Cyril Almeida, Munir Akram, Javed Hasan Aly, Tahir Andrabi, Mehnaz Aziz, Masooda Bano, Josh Busby, Jason Campbell, Gerald Chauvet, Jishnu Das, David Gartner, Sally Gear, Edward Gonzalez, Randy Hattfield, Ward Heneveld, Susan Hirshberg, Khadim Hussain, Bruce Jones, Riaz Mohammad Khan, Parag Khanna, Hamida Khuhro, Molly Kinder, Asim Ijaz Khwaja, Mitch Kirby, Maleeha Lodhi, Tanvi Madan, Sabiha Mansoor, LeAnna Marr, Chris Pagen, Malcolm Phelps, Bruce Riedel, Jacob Shapiro, Mao-Lin Shen, Marshall Smith, Savannah ThomasArrigo, Jacques van der Gaag and Waleed Ziad. We are also grateful for the discussions with other colleagues at the United States Agency for International Development and the Embassy of the United States in Islamabad, Pakistan.

CONTENTS
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Structure of the report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Security versus Development: Striking a Middle Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Many Facets of Pakistani Militancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 International security consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Understanding Pakistan’s Education Landscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Government fails to supply education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Within Pakistan, disparities in educational attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 What happens inside the classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Madrasas Are Not the Main Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 No steep rise in madrasas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Demand for legitimate religious schooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 A few bad apples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Militancy: What’s Education Got to Do with It? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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