A Computer is a machine that can be programmed to accept data (Input), process it (Processing) into useful information (Output) and store it (Storage) for later use. A computer is a combination of Hardware and Software.
The Machine or the Physical components is known as hardware. The programs or the set of instructions are called software. The processing of input to output is directed by the software but performed by the hardware. Hardware:
The physical parts the computer are called Hardware.
The user can see and touch hardware.
Keyboard and Mouse are examples of hardware.
Primary Hardware Components:
1. Input Devices
The data that is given to the computer is called input.
Input devices are used to input data and instructions into the computer.
These devices send this data the processing unit.
Most commonly used input devices are keyboard and mouse.
2. Processing Device
It is the main component of computer.
It process data and converts it in to useful information
The processor is used to process data.
It is also called central processing unit (CPU).
It is the brain of the computer.
It consists electronic circuit CPU interprets and executes program instructions. It is further divided into two main components. These are Control Unit (CU) and Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU). All computers must have central processing unit.
Main memory is used to store the input data before processing. It also stores processed data after processing until the data is sent to the output device. The main memory is closely connected to CPU but it is separate from it.
3. Output Devices
The data processed into useful information is known as output.
Output devices are used to display the result of processing.
The most common output device are monitor and printer.
4. Storage Devices
Storage usually refers to the secondary storage.
These are the hardware components where data is stoored for reuse in future.
The main memory stores data and programs temporarily.
The secondary storage is required to store data, information and programs permanently.
The most common storage devices are floppy disk, hard disk drive and CD-ROM etc.
5. I/O Devices
These are used for input as well as output.
Terminals and Touch Screens are example of I/O Devices.
6. Inter Connectors
These are used to connect different components of a computer. Cables, Ports, Buses etc.
7. Networking Devices
The hardware devices that are used to make and manage networks are called Networking Devices. Modem, Bridge, Router etc.
A set of Instructions given to the computer to solve any problem is called Software. Software is also called Programs.
Different software’s are used to solve different problems. A computer works according to the Instructions written in software. Examples:
a.i. MS Word
a.ii. MS PowerPoint
a.iii. Turbo C
Different categories / types of software?
1) System Software
2) Application Software
1. System Software:
A Program or set of Programs to Control and Manage the operations of a computer hardware. It controls the Usage and Allocation of different hardware components. It enables application programs to execute properly.
System software acts as an interface between the hardware of the computer and the application software that users need to run on the computer. It controls the basic operations as follows:
Saving data on a disk
Printing a Document
Types of System Software:
i. Operating System:
It is a software that manage all resources of computer.
Computer cannot work without operating system.
DOS and Windows are examples of operating System.
ii. Utility Programs:
System Software that is used to perform some specific task for computer Antivirus is an example of utility program.
iii. Device Drivers:
Different hardware components of computer...