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Republic of the Philippines
Department of Education
DepEd Complex, Meralco Avenue
Pasig City

August 27, 2011

Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao Conceptual /Theoretical Framework

A. Introduction

Whatever a person judges worth having, worth doing and worth being reflect his/her values. Values may be non-moral or moral. Non-moral values are those that people want or desire such as activities like reading or exercising. Moral values are standards or principles by which we judge our actions as either good or bad. These values correspond to universal truths that man hold to be good and important. What is good for man as man is perfection that corresponds to the human nature.

Moral values are objective. They are not changed by the perception of an individual. Some people think that values must be entirely subjective, relative to the perception of the individual who holds them. But can honesty lose its value because of the many people who practice it? The frequent practice of an immoral act, such as dishonesty, does not change the meaning of honesty nor does it make dishonesty good (Ramirez, 2007).

Moral values, as defined by Esteban (1989), refer to: universal truths which man holds to be good and important; they are the ethical principles which he struggles to attain and implement in his daily life. They are the ideals which transcend all time and space; those which are valid for all men regardless of race or religion; the ones which unite strangers, families, nations—all of humanity—with God (p.7).

Moral values and universal truths must become the point of reference for individual and societal conduct. During these times of moral confusion and doubt, however, truth is often blurred and ethical principles are unclear. That is WHY the child needs education in values. He has a natural right to truth. He needs guidance and direction as he undergoes the process of internalizing values. He needs to conform his mind continually to truth and reality (p.37).

When we develop the moral values of students, we teach them moral intelligence. Moral intelligence is the capacity to understand right from wrong; it means to have strong ethical convictions and to act on them so that one behaves in the right and honourable way (Borba, 2001:4).

Human beings have always believed that there exists a power higher than the self. Man has a natural tendency towards perfection. For man to achieve perfection, he/she needs supernatural grace to enhance and improve human formation. To gain this supernatural grace, man has to take into account the human virtues, all the human powers he/she has to develop in order to cooperate with supernatural divine grace in this life (De Torre,1980). Human virtues directly benefit the person himself because it is only by practicing virtues that he can live a happy and free life. Why teach virtues and form values?

Unlike with teenagers and adults, one cannot sit down and talk about values with children. They have little capability of learning values unless these are translated into virtues and until the good habits are thoughtfully formed in them through the guidance of adults.

Although some virtues may be acquired through the example of elders at home and in school, they can also be learned through the development of cognitive processes and the conscious formation of behaviour among children. In such case, the teaching profession demands that teachers not only be the role model for the practice of virtues like hope, patience, honesty and industry, but should also know how to systematically transmit these and other virtues that the society holds dear to the next generation.

Warnock (In Halstead, 1996) sees the importance of teaching virtues in schools and the integral role of...
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