Participation is an important element for learning since students learn better and retain more when they are active participants. Learning is an active process requiring kids to be hands on so that they are able to learn successfully. If educators do not know how to get learners involved in learning, their efforts are wasted. In an attempt to motivate learners and ensure that different styles of learning are catered for and different needs are met I will be examining five factors to manage learner participation in the classroom. These are Learner motivation, Group work, Cultural diversity, Multiple intelligences and Teaching and Learning style. 1.1 Learner Motivation
Motivation is something that energises, directs and sustains behaviour, it gets learners moving, points them in a particular direction and keeps them going. All students are motivated in some aspect possibly socially, extracurricular, academics. However, motivation is not necessarily something that learners bring to school it can also stem from environmental factors at school. According to Wlodkowski and Ginsberg (Jones & Jones 1998:180) suggest that learner motivation is improved when the learning environment is based on establishing inclusion, developing attitude, enhancing meaning, engendering competence. For educators to create appropriate learning environments conducive to motivation, they must have knowledge of applicable motivational theories.
1.1.1 Theories of Motivation
1.1.2 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Quite simply extrinsic motivation refers to the external sources that motivate a person. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation means that a person works because of an inner desire to be successful at a task. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation exists in most classrooms but most classroom practices promote extrinsic motivation (Spaulding 1992:5). Due to the outcomes-based education system, the onus is on learners to learn. As a result, much more attention should be given to supporting learners to develop their own intrinsic motivation to be successful in school activities. If learners learn through their own desire and yearning to achieve them learning will be sustainable. There are two concepts that explain the functioning of intrinsic motivation: the perceptions of “personal competence” (self- efficacy) and “personal control” (self determination). Intrinsic motivation results when perceived competence and perceived control are experienced simultaneously. When learners do not perceive themselves to be competent in a given academic environment, opportunities to be self-determined actually lead to a decrease in their motivation (Spaulding 1992:8). In other words if a learner feels as though they are not capable of a certain task they will have no desire to try it due to a lack of motivation. Therefore it is necessary to utilize the following principle to advance the development of intrinsic motivation (Unisa 2006:37): * Provide predictable learning environments
* Create a balance between easy and challenging tasks
* Provide instructional support
* Model activities learners are supposed to do
* Sub-goaling: break larger assignments into smaller tasks * Task-sharing break larger tasks into smaller...