Economy of Pakistan

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Introduction

Pakistan was established in 1947 and since its inception; it has been surrounded by countless issues, some of which are confined to ill-formed/missing infrastructure, insufficient refined resources, barren or obsolete factories and technologies, the Kashmir controversy and other fronts also involving an ever-ready enemy to underscore its efforts towards progress. Despite being rich in natural resources, Pakistan has so far been a developing country with limited development in every era due to the economic problems it has been facing. In the following text we will shed light on some of the major problems faced by Pakistan as a country, today.

Following are some of the important factors that are disturbing Pakistan’s Economy:

• Poverty
• Illiteracy
• Corruption & Political Instability
• Over Population, Unemployment & Inflation
• International Interference
• Terrorism/Extremism
• And The Recent Floods
ECONOMY HISTORY OF PAKISTAN
First five decades

When it gained independence in 1947 from UK. Pakistan's average economic growth rate since independence has been higher than the average growth rate of the world economy during the period. Average annual real GDP growth rates[16] were 6.8% in the 1960s, 4.8% in the 1970s, and 6.5% in the 1980s. Average annual growth fell to 4.6% in the 1990s with significantly lower growth in the second half of that decade. See also[17]

During the 1960s, Pakistan was seen as a model of economic development around the world, and there was much praise for its economic progression. Karachi was seen as an economic role model around the world, and there was much praise for the way its economy was progressing. Many countries sought to emulate Pakistan's economic planning strategy and one of them, South Korea, copied the city's second "Five-Year Plan" and World Financial Center in Seoul is designed and modeled after Karachi. Later, economic mismanagement in general, and fiscally imprudent economic policies in particular, caused a large increase in the country's public debt and led to slower growth in the 1990s. Two wars with India in Second Kashmir War 1965 and Bangladesh Liberation War 1971 and separation of Bangladesh adversely affected economic growth.[18] In particular, the latter war brought the economy close to recession, although economic output rebounded sharply until the nationalizations of the mid-1970s. The economy recovered during the 1980s via a policy of deregulation, as well as an increased inflow of foreign aid and remittances from expatriate workers. [edit]

Recent decades

This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Pakistan at market prices estimated[19] by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Pakistani Rupees

The economy today

Due to inflation and economic crisis worldwide, Pakistan's economy reached a state of Balance of Payment crisis. "The International Monetary Fund bailed out Pakistan in November 2008 to avert a balance of payments crisis and in July last year increased the loan to $11.3 billion from an initial $7.6 billion."[27] Today Pakistan is amongst the elite group of 11 countries,also termed as 'The Next Eleven"identified by Goldman Sachs investment bank as having a high potential of becoming the world's largest economies in the 21st century along with the BRICs.

By October 2007, Pakistan raised back its Foreign Reserves to a handsome $16.4 billion. Exceptional policies kept Pakistan's trade deficit controlled at $13 billion, exports boomed to $18 billion, revenue generation increased to become $13 billion and attracted foreign investment of $8.4 billion.

Since the beginning of 2008, Pakistan's economic outlook has taken stagnation. Security concerns stemming from the nation's role in the War on Terror have created great instability and led to a decline in FDI from a height of approximately $8 bn to $3.5bn for the current fiscal year. Concurrently, the insurgency...
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