Economy of India
|Ser |Topic |Page No | |1. |Introduction |2 | |2. |Overview |2-3 | |3. |History |3-4 | |4. |Key Sectors – Analysis |5-8 | |5. |External Trade and Investment |9-10 | |6. |Reserve Bank Of India (RBI) |10 | |7. |GNI, GDP and Growth rate |11-12 | |8. |Conclusion |12-13 |
Economy of India
1. The economy of India is the tenth largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country is one of the major G-20 economies and a member of BRICS. On per capita income basis, India ranked 140th by nominal GDP and 129th by GDP (PPP) in 2011, according to the IMF.
2. The independence-era Indian economy (from 1947 to 1991) was based on a mixed economy combining the worst features of capitalism and socialism, resulting in an inward-looking, interventionist policies and import-substituting economy that failed to take advantage of the post-war expansion of trade. This model contributed to widespread inefficiencies and corruption, and the failings of this system were due largely to its poor implementation.
3. In 1991, India adopted liberal and free-market oriented principles and liberalized its economy to international trade under the guidance of Manmohan Singh, who then was the Finance Minister of India under the leadership of P.V. NarasimhaRao the then Prime Minister who eliminated License Raj a pre- and post-British Era mechanism of strict government control on setting up new industry. Following these strong economic reforms, and a strong focus on developing national infrastructure such as the Golden Quadrilateral project by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the then Prime Minister, the country's economic growth progressed at a rapid pace with very high rates of growth and large increases in the incomes of people.
4. India recorded the highest growth rates in the mid-2000s, and is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. India has recorded a growth of over 200 times in per capita income in a period from 1947 ([pic] 249.6) to 2011. The growth was led primarily due to a huge increase in the size of the middle class consumer, a large labour force, growth in the manufacturing sector due to rising education levels and engineering skills and considerable foreign investments. India is the nineteenth largest exporter and tenth largest importer in the world. Economic growth rate stood at around 6.5% for the 2011–12 fiscal year.
5. The combination of protectionist, import-substitution and Fabian social democractic-inspired policies governed India for sometime after the end of British occupation. The economy was then characterized by extensive regulation, protectionism, public ownership of large monopolies, pervasive corruption and slow growth. Since 1991, continuing economic liberalization has moved the country towards a market-based economy. By 2008, India had established itself as one of the world's fastest growing economies.
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