Economy in Sudan

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Topic:
“Sudan: Economic and population analysis from 1998 to 2011.”

Subject:
Cultural factors in International Business

Abstract:
Within this research we looked to establish the concept that through an effective analysis that compares the population density and its percentages and the variations in the values of the GDP (Gross domestic Product); Sudan in the line of time that comes since the year 1998 until 2011 has suffered ups and downs within the economic aspect and a total instability in terms of demographic density; due to the high inequality rate and the inefficient governmental regime that regulated the society and every economic and social activity in the country for many years. In addition; one of the most important aspect that has caused the inequality and social conflicts within the society of the country is the civil wars that not only could be seen reflected in the social differences but It caused a total division of the country in two parts; the north and the South Sudan.

Key words: population, Life expectancy, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), deficit, growth, rate, development.

Introduction:
Sudan is a country located in the “northeastern of the African continent” (oficinas comerciales.es) becoming one of the biggest countries in this region. Nowadays; the country has an extension of almost 2 million of square kilometers bordering on the north with Egypt; Uganda and Kenya on the south; east to Ethiopia and finally the Red Sea to the west part of the country. In addition; the Nile River actually divides the country in two sides; the east and the west one. If we want to talk about the history of the country; we have to remember the Egyptian empire; because it controlled in that time most of the countries of the African continent including Sudan known as “Kush” (sudan.net, 2013) by the Egyptians. The principally bonds to the empire were based on cultural and religious aspects and will continue united to it and then to the United Kingdom for many years later; finally achieving its independence in the year 1956. Tearing apart an Islamic-oriented military regime However; the independence didn’t bring peace at all to the Sudanese society because it will have to confront two civil wars after the independence. Becoming the reasons of the disputes the fight for power and dominance between the “northern non- Muslim and the non-Arab Southern Sudanese “ (indexmundi.com). They actually wanted to control the economic, political and social aspect of the country and fought for it for almost 17 years. The country has a population of almost 35 million people and its capital is the city of Khartoum. Its society is divided in two religions which are the “Sunni Muslim and the Christians” (cia.gov, 2013), being a minority the last one. Their official languages are the Arabic and English; spoken by the major part of the population: Besides they speak ethnical languages like the “Nubian, the Ta Bedawie and the Fur” (cia.gov, 2013). In current times the Sudanese population presents an annual growth of “1.83%” (cia.gov, 2013) Approximately 60% of the Sudanese population lives in rural areas, which is predominantly agricultural and absorbs about two-thirds of the population active. This is changing recently with crude oil exports and the GDP growth. The International Monetary Fund estimates the number of the active population at about 13 million which has been reduced since the separation of the South part of the country. The structure of the age pyramid is typical of emerging countries, where the high birth rate and low life expectancy have the consequence that the pyramid presents such high number of children between 0 and 14 years. On the other hand, the birth rate in unit terms is decreasing every ten years in a child less average per woman. However, the number of expected births continues rising, due to population growth and better health. Also keep in mind that the long years of war and conflict between north and...
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