Economics

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Contents
1.CHAPTER ONE2
1.1INTRODUCTION2
1.1.1Background2
2.CHAPTER TWO5
2.1LITERATURE REVIEW5
2.1.1Definition of key concepts5
2.1.2Gender inequality indicators for education6
2.1.3Overview of Gender, education and economic development7 2.1.4Factors affecting gender equality in education.8
2.1.5Gender Equality in Education the Ethiopian Contexts10 3.CHAPTER THREE12
3.1ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS12
3.1.1Trend of Gender equality in primary education12
3.1.1.1Primary completion rate13
3.1.2Trend of Gender equality in secondary education14
3.1.3Trend of gender equality in tertiary education15
3.1.4Over all literacy rate of females16
3.1.5A simple comparison GPI in primary, secondary and tertiary education18 4.CHAPTER FOUR20
4.1CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION20
4.1.1Conclusion20
4.1.2Recommendation21
Reference22
Appendix24
List of tables
Table 3.1Gross enrollment in primary education12
Table 3.2Gross enrollment in secondary education14
Table 3.3 gross enrollment in tertiary education16
Table (5.1) Literacy rate youth (% age 15-24)24
Table (5.2) Literacy rate, adult (% ages 15 and above)24
List of figures Figure
Figure 3.1.1 Primary completion rate………………………………………………………..13 Figure 3.1.2 Literacy rate youth (% age 15-24)……………………………………………...16 Figure 3.1.2 Literacy rate adult (% age 15and above)……………………………………….17 Figure 3.1.4 GPI index in primary, secondary and tertiary education in Ethiopia…………. .18 1.CHAPTER ONE

1.1INTRODUCTION
1.1.1Background
All over the world education is recognized as cornerstone for accelerating economic growth and sustainable development. It is an important point around which the quick development of economic, political, sociological and human resources of any country revolves. Several researches have shown that education is “one of the most effective development investments countries and their donor partners can make” (Basic Education Coalition, 2004). “Adequate investments in education facilitate the achievement of most other development goals and increase the probability that progress will be sustained” (USAID 2005). According to (Basic Education Coalition, 2004) each year of schooling “increases individual output by 4-7 %, and countries that improve literacy rates by 20-30 percent have seen increases in gross domestic product (GDP) of 8-16 %”. Moreover, education builds the human capital that is needed for economic growth. It also produces significant improvements in health, nutrition, and life expectancy, and countries with an educated citizenry are more likely to be democratic and politically stable (USAID, 2005).cited in (USAID, 2008).

Having recognized education as “an instrument per-excellence for effective national development” as well as “a dynamic instrument of change,” it is also the basis for the full promotion and improvement of the status of women. Education empowers women by improving their living standard. It is the starting point for women’s advancement in different fields of human endeavor. It is the basic tool that should be given to women in order to fulfill their role as full members of the society (Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies, 1985). Educating girls achieves greater results in any dimension of development. When girls go to school, they tend to delay marriage, have fewer but healthier children, and contribute more to family income and national productivity. According to (Summers 1992) “educating girls quite possibly yields a higher rate of return than any other investment available in the developing world”.

Education is chosen as the main target to attain the third Millennium Development Goal (MDG3): “To promote gender equality and empower women”. The target is: “The elimination of gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005 and at all levels of education by 2015 (united nation, 2000) .The rationale for a gender equality perspective in education implies a rights perspective as...
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