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BRAIN DRAIN

Brain drain is also known as “The human capital flight”. It can be simply defined as the mass emigration of technically skilled people from one country to another country. Brain-drain can have many reasons, for example-political instability of a nation, lack of opportunities, health risks, personal conflicts etc. Brain-drain can also be named as “human capital flight” because it resembles the case of capital flight, in which mass migration of financial capital is involved.

Causes of Brain Drain
Normally causes of outflow of talented emigrants for developed market economies are covered in general by means of push-pull model .Push and pull factors regarding brain drain appear to be rooted in the unequal economic development of the emigration and immigration countries. Push Factors

Agha Khan Medical University conducted study about the brain drain of (doctors) from Pakistan. As per research 95% of the students of AKU and 65% students of BU want to emigrate due to poor salary in Pakistan along with poor quality of training and work environment.

Syed Jafar Askari viewed terrorism and economic crises are the main factors which forced the highly qualified and brilliant people to leave the country.21
Raheem stated the following reasons for moving abroad:
For better jobs.
Lack of opportunities offered to the highly skilled labour. Unemployment ratio among qualified workers is very high and salary levels for skilled workers are often kept low by
governments to maintain an egalitarian income policy.
Lack of respect of the professionals and usually qualified people are answerable to the bosses that have no knowledge about their respective fields.22
Mohsin Ali comments on reasons of brain drain as:
(i) Economic reasons
Job satisfaction.
Academically progressive environment.
Better pay and service condition.
(ii) Lack of financial and academic reasons
Better life and higher education.
Lack of institutions for research along with doctorate and post doctorate level studies opportunities.
Political Instability.
(iii) Lack of Higher Education Institutions
Causes and Solutions to Intellectual Brain Drain in Pakistan Nadia Sajjad The Dialogue Volume 39 VI Number 1
Science and technology is the area not fully exploited by the Pakistani resources. Fewer budgets in education sector are the reason in leaking the higher studies contributing to brain drain. Natural problems.

Political and social problems.
Lack of scientific based study.
Lack of competition and challenging culture.
Non-availability of facilities for research and
development.
No merit system.23
Annie Gulrukh, views economic survey and statistics have shown that the unemployment ratio is increasing every year.24 Irum Sarfaraz said that nearly 3,000 (annually) graduates of Pakistan’s medical colleges are jobless; most go abroad. The educated see their future not in their home country but in any country but their own”.25

Nasir Nadeem and Dr Muhammad Ashfaq, found that brain drain
occur due to the following reasons:
Poor economic conditions.
Slow promotion process.
Non-availability of opportunities for youth in the existing social set-up. 26
Syed Jafar Askari, stated that thousands of MBBS graduates are produced annually from different medical colleges and universities in the country, while 50 to 60 per cent of the fresh graduates leave the country to pursue for better professional careers in foreign lands.27 Rehmatulah, found terrorism and insecurity compel skilled

workers to move, as per Act (8) of Pakistani Constitution every person is free for migration in any areas of world for life security.28 Qamar Habib observed lack of secure and respectable environment is a sole reason for their move.29

Shah, claimed that general political climate in a given society or country strongly influences the situation of highly qualified personnel. Discrimination in appointments, promotion on the basis of...
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