Economic Problem of Pakistan

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Govt.Postgraduate College For Women ST.Town Rawalpindi

Assignment Topic:-
Types Of Thinking

Submitted To:-
Mam Rehana
Submitted By:-
Jamila Bibi
Roll Number:-
1982
Date Of Submission:-
15-05-2013

Thinking:-
Thinking is mental activity associated with understanding processing and communicating knowledge. It is essentially the manipulation of image and ideas which represent our past experience. Various Definition Of Thinking:-

* According to Morgan
“Thinking is the sequence of symbolic processes that represent past experience and learning.” * According to Fernald
“Thinking is a higher mental process.” * According to McDougall
“Thinking is a source of satisfaction of the instinct.” * According to Behaviorist
“Thinking is a delayed response.” * According to boring weld and Lang Fled
“Thinking is directed toward the solution of a problem.”

Nature Of Thinking:-

Thinking is a more of mental activity rather than physical activity. It occurs when we face a problem having no readymade solution. In such situation use a past experience with a modification of our behavior to solve the problem. This mental activity of exploration or meditation continues till the solution of problem is achieved. In this way thinking is the base of our voluntary behavior.

Characteristics Of Thinking:-

* Problem:-
There is a certain problem, which has no readymade solution underlying each and every thinking process.

* Associations:-
Thinking has a chain of associative thoughts and ideas which help to solve the problem.

* Analysis And Synthesis:-
Analysis and synthesis are both used in thinking. Every aspect of problem is formerly analyzed separately and latterly all of these aspects are synthesized to examine the relationship between stimuli and responses. * Presence Of Stimuli:-

Thinking does not need the presence of stimuli or objects to be sensed. * Physical Condition:-
The physical condition is at rest during thinking . However, slight movement in the muscles, fingers, hands, arms, shoulders, eyebrows, lips and larynx are noticed in thinking. * Words And Language:-

Verbal symbols are used in thinking in a sub vocal activity. An individual talks to himself in a low tone * Source Of Knowledge:-
Thinking is a source of knowledge and is a higher mental process in human beings. Animal also have thinking but lesser then human beings. Animal thinking is purposive in nature and is expressed in the primary stage. Human thinking is more progressive and higher then animals as his life is more complex. Types Of Thinking

There are two types of thinking
* Autistic or crooked thinking
* Realistic or straight thinking

* Autistic Thinking:-
This type of thinking is of free associative ideas in which an individual remains busy in wishful thinking and satisfies his unconscious desires, unsolved problems and conflicts. It occur when an individual fails to satisfy his desires, fails io achieve his goals and aims of life. Types Of Autistic Thinking

It can be further divided into two types
* Fantasy or day dreaming
* Dreams
* Realistic or Straight Thinking:-
Realistic thinking is a process which helps in problem solving in the real environment with the use of practical neurophysiologic process of overt behavior in productive and reproductive thinking. Types Of Realistic Thinking

It can be further divided into three types
* Problem solving
* Reasoning
* Creative thinking

1-Problem Solving
Definition Of Problem:-
A situation when a...
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