1 Economic Reform
2 Economic planning and development
3 Industrial policy
5 Methods of privatization
6 Meaning of disinvestment policy
7 Managing of disinvestment policy
8 Working of disinvestment policy
9 Criticism of disinvestment policy
Economic reform is a key to improving competitiveness, providing the environment for healthy business and job creation, reducing poverty and increasing social inclusion
* Price of telecommunication by type of call
* Gas type electricity prices by types of uses
* Gas prices by type of uses
There reflect the competitiveness of the telecommunication and energy markets * Comparative price level
* Price convergence between EU countries.
More efficient and integrated markets should allow price to converge across countries, leading to more competition and trade * State aid by type of aids
Less and better- targeted government support is crucial for effective competition * Business demography Figures for business start-up, deaths and survivability, an objective of the growth and jobs strategy is to introduce policies supporting entrepreneurship in the EU * Market integration by types of trade activity
A bonus of the EU and particularly the single market which eliminates barriers to the movement of goods, services, and people with the EU.
ECONOMIC PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
Under a series of five year plans through 2,000 the government became a participant in many industrial field and increased its regulation of existing private commerce and industry. Long the owner operator of the most railway facilities, all radio broadcasting post and telegraphy facilities arms and ammunition factories, and river develop programs the government reserved for itself the right to nationalization any industries it deemed necessary. Yet the government socialist approach was programmatic, not doctrinaires, agriculture and large segments of trade, finance and industry remained in private hands. Planning is supervised by an eight member planning commission, established in 1950 and chaired by the prime minister
India first four five year plans entrained a total public sector outlay of Rs. 314.1 billion. The first plan (1951-1956) accorded top priority to agriculture, especially irrigation and power project. The second plan (1956-1961) was designed to implement the new industrial policy and to a socialist pattern of society
The plan stressed in rapid industrialization, a 25% increase in national income (in fact, the achieved increase was only 20 %) and reduction of inequalities in wealth and income. The focus of the third plan (1961-1966) was industrialization with 24.6% spent on transportation and communication and 20.1% on industry and minerals. Drought inflation and war with Pakistan made the plan major disappointment, although considerable industrial disinvestment was achieved and national income rose, per capita income did not increase (because of population growth) and harvests were disastrously low because of the unsettled domestic situation, fourth five year plan did not take effect until 1969. The 1969-1974plan sought to control fluctuation in agricultural output and to promote equality and social justice. Agriculture and allied sectors received 16.9% more than in any previous class. While industry and minerals received 18.5% transportation and communication 18.4% and power development 17.8% also more than in any previous plan.
The fifth plan (1974-1979) aimed at removal of poverty and the attainment of self reliance. A total outlay of Rs393.2 billion was allocated (20% less than originally envisaged) and actual expenditure total was Rs...