Economic Integration

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Economic integration
Economic integration is the unification of economic policies between different states through the partial or full abolition of tariff and non-tariff restrictions on trade taking place among them prior to their integration. This is meant in turn to lead to lower prices for distributors and consumers with the goal of increasing the combined economic productivity of the states. The trade stimulation effects intended by means of economic integration are part of the contemporary economic Theory of the Second Best: where, in theory, the best option is free trade, with free competition and no trade barriers whatsoever. Free trade is treated as an idealistic option, and although realized within certain developed states, economic integration has been thought of as the "second best" option for global trade where barriers to full free trade exist. In economics, the word integration was first employed in industrial organisation to refer to combinations of business firms through economic agreements, cartels, concerns, trusts, and mergers—horizontal integration referring to combinations of competitors, vertical integration to combinations of suppliers with customers. In the current sense of combining separate economies into larger economic regions, the use of the word integration can be traced to the 1930s and 1940s.

Objective
The increase of trade between member states of economic unions is meant to lead to higher productivity. This is one of the reasons for the global scale development of economic integration, a phenomenon now realized in continental economic blocks such as ASEAN, NAFTA, SACN, the European Union, and the Eurasian Economic Community; and proposed for intercontinental economic blocks, such as the Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia and the Transatlantic Free Trade Area.

Stages
The degree of economic integration can be categorized into seven stages: 1. Preferential trading area
2. Free trade area, Monetary union
3. Customs union, Common market
4. Economic union, Customs and monetary union
5. Economic and monetary union
6. Fiscal union
7. Complete economic integration
These differ in the degree of unification of economic policies, with the highest one being the political union of the states. A "free trade area" (FTA) is formed when at least two states partially or fully abolish custom tariffs on their inner border. To exclude regional exploitation of zero tariffs within the FTA there is a rule of certificate of origin for the goods originating from the territory of a member state of an FTA. A "customs union" introduces unified tariffs on the exterior borders of the union (CET, common external tariffs). A "monetary union" introduces a shared currency. A "common market" add to a FTA the free movement of services, capital and labor. An "economic union" combines customs union with a common market. A "fiscal union" introduces a shared fiscal and budgetary policy. In order to be successful the more advanced integration steps are typically accompanied by unification of economic policies (tax, social welfare benefits, etc.), reductions in the rest of the trade barriers, introduction of supranational bodies, and gradual moves towards the final stage, a "political union".

Stages of economic integration around the World:

*   Economic and Monetary Union (CSME/EC$, EU/€)
*   Economic union (CSME, EU)
*   Customs and Monetary Union (CEMAC/franc, UEMOA/franc) *   Common market (EEA, EFTA, CES)
*   Customs union (CAN, CUBKR, EAC, EUCU, MERCOSUR, SACU) *   Multilateral Free Trade Area (AFTA, CEFTA, CISFTA, COMESA, GAFTA, GCC, NAFTA, SAFTA, SICA, TPP)

SAFTA
In 1993, SAARC countries signed an agreement to gradually lower tariffs within the region, in Dhaka. Eleven years later, at the 12th SAARC summit in Islamabad, Pakistan, It created a free trade area of 1.6 billion people in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri...
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