Economic Immigration: the Case of Spain

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Economic immigration: the case of Spain

Why did I choose this topic?

I. Introduction

1. The term immigration

1.1 The term immigration and the general theories behind it

1.2. Economic migrant

2. Global immigration

3. Immigration in Europe

1. Immigration within Europe

2. Immigration from outside of Europe

II. The case of Spain

1. Immigration laws and policies in Spain

2. Main countries from where people emigrate to Spain

1. Bulgarians in Spain

3. Main reasons for choosing Spain

III. Conclusion

The data used in this project is from year 2005.

Why did I choose this topic?

Watching half of my classmates applying in foreign universities and many of my friends and family choosing to live abroad in order to have “better life” made me wonder what the reasons behind the migrations are. I was interested in the scientific explanation behind the migration processes. This paper gave me the opportunity to understand the incentives behind people’s decisions and the main reasons, pushing people from our own country.

And even if I didn’t choose the case of Spain for my topic it proved to be a very interesting one. I learned many new things while writing this paper and it was really interesting to read all this information about immigrants and their reasons to go to Spain and not some other country.

I. Introduction

1. The term immigration and the general theories behind it

Immigration is the introduction of new people into a habitat or population. It is a biological concept and is important in population ecology, differentiated from emigration and migration.

1. The general theories behind immigration

One theory of immigration distinguishes between Push and Pull Push factors refer primarily to the motive for emigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration (usually labour migration), differentials in wage rates are prominent. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one’s native country, he or she may choose to migrate as long as the costs are not too high. Particularly in the 19th century, economic expansion of the U.S. increased immigrant flow, and in effect, nearly 20% of the population was foreign born versus today’s values of 10%, making up a significant amount of the labor force. Poor individuals from less developed countries can have far higher standards of living in developed countries than in their originating countries. The cost of emigration, which includes both the explicit costs, the ticket price, and the implicit cost, lost work time and loss of community ties, also play a major role in the pull of emigrants away from their native country. As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased dramatically between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days. When the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty (personal or for relatives staying behind) is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. This kind of migration may be illegal immigration in the destination country (emigration is also illegal in some countries, such as North Korea, Myanmar, and Somalia). Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries, and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations and the diplomatic service expect, by definition, to work 'overseas'. They are often referred to as 'expatriates', and their conditions of employment are typically equal to or better than those applying in the host...
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